1. was formed and the concept of African

1.                 
He went to a
school of a local missionary. Because of holding anti-government and anti-state
views at a very young age, Mandela could not remain in the school for very
long. He was rusticated and removed from the school. He went to Johannesburg
and managed to get a job as a gold mine policeman. While doing the job he
followed a correspondence course at University of South Africa and obtained the
Degree of Bachelor of Arts. Nelson after studying for his LLB at Witwatersrand
University graduated in Law and qualified as a Solicitor.

 

2.                 
His political
interest and views of resistance were aroused while he listened to elders of
his tribe in the village. The tribal leaders would relate stories of the past
as to how they used to fight heroic wars in defence of their country, as well
as the acts of valour performed by the leaders and soldiers during those epic
days. The qualities of leadership and desire of freedom within him aroused the
spirit of resistance. He hoped and vowed that he would sacrifice the pleasure
of life but he would not lose the opportunity of serving his people by
restoring to them the freedom, which they had during the pre-colonial days. In
spite of such liberal views, he was not free from the tribal customs. He was
circumcised at the age of 16 on the bank of his tribal home. Paramount chief of
the Tembuland, who looked after him after the death of his father, married him
to fat and dignified girl from a royal family.

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3.                 
During his
stay at Johannesburg and at the university, that he felt the agony of racial
discrimination and colour bar. He saw men of his colour fighting for equal rights
and rights and freedom of movement. At the age of 25, he joined the African
National Congress in 1944. When the congress Youth League was formed and the
concept of African Nationalism was under transformation, gave Nelson an
undeterred opportunity to show his inherent leadership and dedication to the
cause for which the ANC was formed. He was one of the accused in the massive
treason trial at the end of 1950s and following the 1960, banning of the ANC,
he went underground.

 

4.                 
It was during
this time that he together with other leaders of the ANC constituted a new
specialised from of liberation movement, “Umkhonoto We Sizwe” (spear of the
nation), as an armed nucleus with Mandela as its Commander-In-Chief.

 

5.                 
The group
attempted to drive home the seriousness of their intentions to achieve equal
rights for all races in South Africa by attacking government buildings, evading
injury to people and for his part in the defiance campaign; Mandela was
convicted under the suppression of communism Act and given a suspended prison
sentence. Shortly after the campaign ended, he was also prohibited from
attending gatherings and confined to Johannesburg for six months.

 

6.                 
During the
whole of him fifties, Mandela was the victim of various forms of repression. He
was banned, arrested and imprisoned. After the Sharpeville massacre in 1960,
the ANC was outlawed, and Mandela put on trial and detained. The treason trial
collapsed in 1961 as South Africa was being steered towards the adaptation of
the republic constitution. Mandrel’s activities at the time forced him to hide
from South African authorities. In 1962 Mandela left the country illegally and
travelled to several countries. During this trip Mandela, anticipating from
south, began to arrange guerrilla training for members of “Umkhonto We Sizwe”
When he return home, the police were tipped off about his hiding place and
Mandela was arrested, convicted of incitement to riot and leaving the country
without a passport. He was sentenced to five years in Jail.  

 

7.                 
While in
prison doing hard labour he was tried again for his involvement in “Umkhonto We
Sizwe”. Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment. In the winter of 1964,
Nelson Mandela started his prison years in the notorious Robben Island prison.
He spent 18 years out of his 27 prison years in Robben Island. Mandela served
just over twenty seven years as a political Prisoner as rest of the world
demanded his release. While Mandela was in prison growing anti-apartheid forces
in South Africa argued that he should be freed. Mandela flatly rejected offers
made by his jailers’ remission of sentence and again he rejected an offer of
release on condition that he renounces violence.

 

8.                 
 In July 1989 PW Botha, then President met
Mandela in prison and in December the same year Botha’s successor, FW de Klerk
held an important meeting with Mandela in prison. The very next year Mandela
was released and the ban on ANC lifted. He was inaugurated as the first
democratically elected State President of South Africa on 10 May 94. He was the
country’s first black president. The country’s National Assembly elected him.
The assembly had been chosen in South Africa’s first free election in which the
blacks were allowed to vote. Blacks won a majority of the Assembly seats. These
development marked the beginnings of a new era in South African politics, thus
blacks gained control of the government after a long period of white
domination.

 

LEADERSHIP STYLE

 

9.                 
Leadership is defined
as the ability to influence a group of people towards the achievement of goals.
On the other hand, management relates primarily to maintaining order and
consistency. Nelson Mandela, the great South African president, adopted the
mixed of leadership styles with a vision and inspired the others to follow his
direction in order to achieve the goals.

 

a.                 
Visionary Leader. Nelson Mandela had a
vision where he saw an Africa with apartheid being eliminated and man are being
free and equalized. It was this vision that pushed him to do what he was supposed
to do and it was also this vision that made him believe that he still has hope
through the darkest days in prison. He never gave up even though he was
imprisoned for twenty-seven years before being elected to be the first
president of South Africa. Nelson Mandela not only travelled around his nation
giving speech, but yet he organized resistance to discriminatory legislation.
In addition, he also innovated and armed his nation to fight for their rights
and most importantly their freedom. He also encouraged them to fight against
the apartheid as well as convincing them that they could do something about the
oppression.

 

b.                 
Charismatic Leader. Nelson Mandela
practiced such style of leadership which was alleged to be very captivating and
successful. While leading his followers back in those days, Nelson Mandela held
strong emotional reactions towards them. It was this leadership style which
held the trust between Mandela and his ANC followers when Mandela was
imprisoned for the past twenty-seven years. In fact, this strong emotional
reaction gave them a strong belief that they should continue to fight for
apartheid and pledge willing obedience to him.

 

c.                  
Transformational
Leader.
As
the Volunteer in Chief of the ANC, Mandela travelled around the country trying
to raised people’s awareness and organizing confrontation to prejudiced
regulation. He encouraged his people to
continue fighting until they strive freedom and never giving up until they
achieved their goal. Further, as a significant leader, he elevated
consciousness of his followers by appealing to their higher ideals and values.
In fact, he also encouraged many to educate themselves because adopting
education is the key to success.

 

d.                 
Democratic. Nelson Mandela
finally employed a democratic style of leadership, allowing him to facilitate
reconciliatory communication between South Africa’s many and varied social
groups and influence a dramatic improvement in his nation’s political
situation. The primary feature of the democratic style of leadership is the
encouragement of the participation of all another
key feature of the democratic style of leadership is the fact that group
members become active stake-holders through the harnessing of their individual
talents.

 

ANALYSES AND COMPARISONS
BETWEEN LEADERSHIP STYLES

‘Real
leaders must be ready to sacrifice all for the freedom of their people’

                                                                                        
  Nelson Mandela

LEADER
COMPETENCE AREAS

 

10.             
While
campaigning for equality, he was ultimately sent to prison where he would spend
the next 27 years of his life. He was confined to a small cell without a bed or
plumbing and was forced to do hard labour. As a political prisoner, he received
smaller rations and fewer privileges than other inmates. Further, he was only
allowed to see his wife and two young daughters twice a year. Under this
condition also Mandela stayed strong throughout the 27 years.

 

11.             
Nelson Mandela’s speechmaking played a key role in
his journey. He delivered many powerful and significant speeches during his
lifetime. He was a great speaker who was fluent and could lucid himself well.
His speeches were put together with beautiful words and sentences. In March
1990, two months after his release from prison, he addressed 72,000 people at
Wembley Stadium in London at a benefit concert supporting the end of apartheid.
In a simple but powerful statement he told the crowd “Thank you that you choose
to care”.

 

12.             
Mandela was full of hope, not hate and he was a man
who was able to forgive his oppressors. He even forgave those that
imprisoned him for 27 years. Mandela had a willingness to reach out and connect
with even those who hated and feared him and this set him apart from many
leaders. He even had dinner with the man who tried to kill him. As an example,
Percy Yutar was the state prosecutor at the 1964 treason trial at which Mandela
was convicted of sabotage and sentenced to hard labour for life. He demanded
the death penalty for Mandela. In 1995, Mandela invited him to dinner where
they enjoyed a meal. Mandela said that Yutar had only been doing his job and
when asked why he was so willing to forgive, he answered “Hating clouds the
mind”.

 

13.             
 Nelson Mandela had a sense of humility and always
focused on the people and not his own ego. During the
1995 rugby world cup he at South Africa, encouraged black South Africans to
support the previously hated South African national team which had been
subjected to various boycotts. The country went on to win the tournament, with
Mandela presenting the trophy to Captain of the team and this was widely seen
as major step in the reconciliation of white and black South Africans.

 

14.             
Further,
during his last years, Nelson Mandela became one of the world’s most important
and effective campaigners against HIV/Aids, bringing more attention to the
issue and trying to end its humiliation. He gave up most of his engagements
except those were he was invited to speak and spread awareness on Aids. It
became the most important work of his foundation and he launched a charity, to
which he gave his Robben Island prison number, 46664, to raise awareness and
funds through huge international concerts.

 

PERSONAL CHARACTERISTIC

15.             
Mandela had come from a long line of leaders. Born
into a royal family in 1918, his grandfather had been a king of the Thembu
people. He led the South Africa from apartheid to democracy, was a humble,
eloquent and inspirational figure who advocated peace, democracy and human
rights. Mandela will be remembered as a man who went beyond the call of duty.
He showed his fellow countrymen that it was possible, perhaps even imperative
to forgive one’s enemies.

 

16.             
 Mandela was
such a powerful leader during apartheid that the white minority government
considered him a threat to the state, even from prison. He inspired people
around the world to support the anti-apartheid movement.  “Free Mandela” was often shouted in protests
which that were organized by people who never met him. He never gave up in the
fight against his country’s oppressive regime and was released from prison in
1990. He then participated in the eradication of apartheid and became the first
black president of South Africa in 1994. Mandela led by example, inspiring
South Africa’s political and racial rivals to work together to build a
democracy.

 

17.             
Great leaders are honest, open and transparent. They
share their passions and make no excuses for supporting the causes they believe
in. Mandela was in fact so transparent, his words and act. Mandela had a great
awareness of his way of being, his patience, calm confidence, forgiveness, and
humor all helped to increase his followership 
helping to gain support in achieving his goals and making a positive
impact.

 

 

 

LEADERS’
PERFORMANCE VS FOLLOWERS’ SATISFACTION

18.             
Nelson Mandela had a
vision where he saw an Africa with apartheid being eliminated and man are being
free and equalized. He never gave up fight even though he was imprisoned for
twenty seven years. This strong emotional reaction gave Followers a strong belief
that they should continue to fight for apartheid and pledge willing obedience
to him. As result of this people around the world support the anti-apartheid
movement. As the first black president of South Africa in 1994, Mandela led by
example, inspiring South Africa’s political and racial rivals to work together
to build a democracy.

 

19.             
In 1993 Nelson
Mandela shared Nobel Peace Prize with FW de Klerk, for successful negotiations
to end the evil of apartheid in South Africa as results of the satisfaction of
his dedication and sacrifice. Mandela was the recipient of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for
International understanding (1979), Bharat Rattan in 1990 and the world
Methodist Peace Award in 2000 as well as in the same year he was presented with
the prestigious Gandhi Peace Award.

 

LESSON LEARNED AND RECOMMENDATION

 

“The greatest
glory in living lies in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.”

                                                                                                                    
Nelson Mandela

 

20.             
Nelson Mandela
is one of the greatest freedom fighter of the world. He was a demi-god for the
oppressed natives of South Africa. He dedicated his entire life for the fight
against the apartheid and freedom of the blacks. Although he trained himself in
guerrilla warfare and started an armed wing of ANC and shunned violence in his
struggle. Mandela will be remembered as a man who went beyond the call of duty.
He showed his fellow countrymen that it was possible, perhaps even imperative
to forgive one’s enemies. He inspired people around the world to support the
anti-apartheid movement by using the Gandhian style and he was referred to as “Living Gandhi”.

21.             
He never gave up in the fight until he achieved the
Goal. Mandela had a great awareness of his way of being, his
patience, calm confidence, forgiveness, and humour all helped to increase his followership
by helping to gain support in achieving his goals and making a positive impact.
He hated none and stretches his hands to his
opponents to join him in rebuilding a new and independent South Africa.

 

22.             
The life and
the work of Nelson Mandela should be a fine inspiration and an example for the
political leaders as well as for the Military Leaders. The Life of the Mandela
deeply explained that the impossible is nothing, we are responsible to change
our life, Power of Education, Importance of the Positive thinking, Live on
Purpose and Never give up the Life Until we achieved to the Destination.

 

ADVANTAGES IN TODAY’S ENVIRONMENT

23.             
While
studying the Life of the Nelson Mandela people could able to realize that what
the leadership is. Whether you are born or developed as a leader is not a
question, the main thing that we can learn from the Mandel’s Life. Only thing
we need is charisma to be a leader.  In
general, Nelson Mandela can be characterized as an excellent leader, with good
judgments and listening skills, sensitive and open-minded. He was an
intelligent leader since it requires good strategic plan and clever manoeuvre
in order to defeat your enemies without humiliating them. Motivating and Moral
Building of followers, creating confidence,
Coordination, Goal setting and representation are the main things which we can
acquired from the Mandela’s life as the advantages in the Today’s Environment.

CONCLUSION

30.       The South African activist and former
president Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) helped bring an end to apartheid and has
been a global advocate for human rights. A member of the African National
Congress party beginning in the 1940s, he was a leader of both peaceful
protests and armed resistance against the white minority’s oppressive regime in
a racially divided South Africa. His actions landed him in prison for nearly
three decades and made him the face of the antiapartheid movement both within
his country and internationally. Released in 1990, he participated in the
eradication of apartheid and in 1994 became the first black president of South
Africa, forming a multi-ethnic government to oversee the country’s transition.
After retiring from politics in 1999, he remained a devoted champion for peace
and social justice in his own nation and around the world until his death in
2013 at the age of 95.

The
Former President of USA President Barack Obama’s anti-racism tweet following
the deadly Charlottesville race rally became the most liked tweet of all
times.  More than three million people
liked the tweet.   That was President
Obama made a speech condemning the racism in the aftermath of the protests,