2. number of objectives. Professional development: (a) Updates

2. Professional
Development:

2.1. What is
Professional Development (PD):

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For educators,
pre-service training is essential to be able to perform in an expected level.
But it cannot prepare them for the life-long challenges that they have to
overcome. To be able to sustain a high standard of teaching and become a high
quality teaching professional, teachers and educators need Professional
Development (PD). PD could be broadly defined as a
carefully designed collection of 
activities that develop an educator’s skills, understanding, expertise
and other essential characteristics. 1 According to the
glossary of education reform, PD might be applied in reference to a vast variety of specialized guidance, formal education,
or advanced competent learning meant to help administrators and educators  improve their professional mastery, competence, expertise,
and effectiveness. 2

2.2. Features of PD:

To implement PD effectively, some of the attributes of functional PD
should be mentioned. According to a research 3, effective PD has following
characteristics:

(a) Successful PD  aligned with
school goals, and district and national standards, and PD activities evaluated
formatively,

(b) Focus given to core content and uses of the teacher’s strategies for
the content,

(c) Opportunities for active learning of new teaching strategies
included,

(d) The chance for teachers’ collaboration provided,

(e) Follow-up and continuous feedback included.

However, these characteristics do not necessarily guarantee the success
of PD program, but it has been observed that these features have an influence
over the development of educators teaching quality when implemented. 

2.3. Objectives of PD:

Professional learning for educators can serve a number of objectives.
Professional development:

(a) Updates teachers’ understanding of a particular topic considering
recent advances in the subject;

(b) Updates educators’ skills, attitudes and approaches in view of the
development of latest teaching techniques and educational research;

(c) Empowers teachers to apply modifications to curricula;

(d) Enables educational institutions to develop and apply new strategies
regarding the curriculum and different aspects of teaching  methods;

(e) Helps weaker educators become functional. 1