As the researcher said,
this research is based on spelling errors adopted by BahrainiEnglish major
students. Many of my friends helped me as well as my cousins, they encouraged
me to start the hard work and submit it to our supervisor Dr.Madani, who a
special words of gratitude go to him for understanding us the course precisely
and we come up with this work.
I am grateful to my
friends Eman Mahdi and Sara S.Murtadha for their help and effort to develop my
I sincerely thank my
cousin Zainab Jaffer for posting my questions in her whatsapp group.
Table of content:
A brief history of error
Findings and discussions
Recently English language has spread all over the
world and has become one of the most important language.
According to the discussed topic, the researcher would like to explain the between errors and mistakes. Errors mean that you
don’t know how to spell a word. Although mistakes is you know the word spelling
but maybe sometimes you got confused and misspell it (ellis,1997,p17).In this
research the researcher discuss errors, and why students adopted errors
especially Arab learners?
For sure Arab learners find difficulties in learning
the skill to improve themselves, “Corder (1981)” consider these
language errors a natural byproduct of learning”. He among other
researcher such as “Hildreth (1962) and Brown (2000) vies these errors an
important indicator of the progress of learning
The researcher decided to start with the first
spelling skill by answering the question of what is the cause of spelling errors.And
the researcher is decided to discuss some of the points that affect student’s spelling.
First, lack of English rules, silent consonants, lack
of vocabulary and many reasons as well.
Becausein English language, “if you simply wrote
words the way the sound, you’d come up with some very peculiar spelling”.
If you tried to sound out every word and pronounce it exactly the way it’swritten,
you’d come up with some pretty odd pronunciations too”.
There are English words which have silent consonant,
do you think there any rule related to this subject? And how can you identify
spelling mistakes if you have silent consonant?
A brief history of Error Analysis:
analysis has been established by Corder and his colleagues in 1970’s. When you
are going to search about EA you will notice that many learners struggle with
language because of their lack of rules of the new language.
to Corder, there was an article written by him”the significance of learner
errors”(1967) but it was different from his first edition.
stated ‘important in and of themselves” which indicates that analyzing
errors made by language learner make us know where the exact weakness in
learners and how teachers can solve this problem. In addition, he said EA is
based on two important point: theoretical and applied, that to give learners
more proficiency in learning language.
a large amount of survey can be found in chapter (8) of Brown (2000).
Spelling mistakes in English is not just a problems
for Arab or Bahraini students but it is a problem for all learners as Hildreth,
Bahloul (2007) said. Although, native speakers did less mistakes than Bahraini
speaker.According to smith and swan(2001), they claimed that Arab learners
found more difficulties in writing because of their language , means their
language is totally different from the English language, however non-Arab
learners faces less difficulties and the reason behind this is the nature of
each language, whereas other languages are little similar to English language.
In Hildreth’s point of views: when you are writing a
spelling with confidence you did a better job in your writing’ but when you
have a problem in your
Spelling how you are going to express your feeling,
that indicated that developing student’s spelling helps students focus on the
writing without the fear of making spelling mistakes.
English spelling is a complicated skill that has been
searched for to avoid mistakes long time ago but according to Bear and Templeton
(1998), they have discovered some layers which we have to follow in order to
begin learning accurately. Actually there are three layers 1.alphabetic layer,
briefly, it is children first understanding of the alphabet, Beers and
Henderson (1977) Gentry and Henderson (1981). 2. The pattern layer, which
combine the alphabet to create a word, 3. The meaning layer, is about the
meaning if a word created in the pattern layer.
As it is known that correct spelling make a quality of
you academic writing more accurate according to (al-Zuoud and kabilan,2013),
but most of the English learners face difficulties in their spelling and it
happens because of many factors that affect their writing.
But many studies have been done on this subject, and
almost all of them got same results.
Firstly, a study has been done on types of English
spelling errors and it has done on undergraduate students at university of
Ha’il in Saudia Arabia, and it is indicated that omission errors rated the
highest rate and the rest of spelling errors goes to wrong usage of vowels and pronunciation.
Another study has been conducted by Fender (2008) to
see whether mistakes is common over Arab learners or non-Arab learners. The
findings claimed that Arab learner found more difficulties in learning English
language as well as committed more mistakes in their writings.
Cook classified (1999) four different categories of
spelling errors: omission, substitution, insertion and transposition, according
to this categorization a study has conducted over EFL undergraduate Jordanian Students,
and the study indicated that most errors made according to substitution
(replaced letters with another) and omission (deleting some letters).
For the conducting of this study, I used a
questionnaire with ten different questions, and 30 of Bahraini students who are
only studying English language and literature at the University of Bahrain
answered the questions.
As I said the only instrument was used in this study
was a questionnaire, I used this technique because it is easier to collect
whatever questions you need.
To investigate the factors that interrupted their
spelling in their writing, and the data was collected through ten multiple
choice questions answered by 30 participants from different gender and ages in
order to identify whether mistakes made the most by whom?
Furthermore, the respondents were asked to rate
themselves out of 100% in spelling and if they considered themselves as a
“good speller” or “bad speller”. Secondly, they have been
asked about what measures they are taking it they do not know how to spell a
word, also what could improve their spelling? And if they know any spelling and
pronunciation rules? Besides, how often do they make spelling mistakes? How
often do they read their Composition before submit it to their professor?
Finally, they were given the word ‘tomorrow’ with inverted letters and asked
them to choose the right answer.
As the results has been shown that 92% of the
respondents were females and only 8% were males, this indicated the majority of
English learners are females.
The age range of the respondents were from 18 to 24
and above whereas 21 to 23 ranked first with 54%, then the age between 18-20
with 42 and finally 24 and above occupied the lowest ranking by 10%.
According to their study, all of the students were
The first two questions after ages and genders were do
they consider themselves as a “good speller” or a “bad
speller”? And how much do they rate themselves out of 100%?Opinions
differed on those two questions. As to the first question, 62%of English
students responded as a “good speller” and 38% of them responded as a
The answers on the second question also differs from
one to another, where 75% of the respondents rated themselves between 50% to
80% and this ratio was the highest among the options, 25% considered themselves
90% and above, the lowest percentage was recorded to 50% and less, this is a
predictable result because I do not think there are
English language students and their spelling level is less than 50%.
Furthermore, when I asked students about how do they
spell a word if they heard it for the first time, answered were distributed to
3 choices. The first choice was check it up in the dictionary which rated the
highest ratio with 58%, I strongly agree with this choice, because dictionaries
are the guaranteed key to make sure of any word in the world, provided that
they are certified by linguistics and language specialists. The second choice
was guess it and it rated 25%, but I strongly opposed this choice because it is
not a good idea to guess a word that you do not know, this builds a wrong base
in your mind that is difficult to erase. 17% chose other answers, here are some
answers, one of them wrote auto correct, and I think
it is a good idea if you are not going to select it randomly. Another student
wrote both, check it is a dictionary and guess it, it is also useful, and
because you are going to correct
Your mind the minute you guess that word. One more
answer were pronouncing the word and guessing the alphabet, this related to
guessing the Word. Last response were Google it- asked my colleagues, it is
also an accepted point.
When I asked them about how they could improve their
spelling, 54% claimed that they were keen to read stories in order to gain new
words. 46% goes to memorize words means they memorize words in order to avoid
spelling mistakes. None of them chose memorize important rules, which I think
it is the most important strategy to improve your spelling.
I gave them the word “tomorrow” with three
different spelling (tomorrow-tomorrow and tomorrow), and I asked them to choose
the right choice, all of them chose “tomorrow”, it was an easy
question but sometimes as we see, some are confused whether the “R”
is doubled or the “M”.
As we can notice from the graphic above, that ‘some of
the rules’ took the highest average 62% while the total average of others were
38%, 8% answered “yes” and 29% answered “no”.
According to this question, answers also differed
between sometimes, most of the time and never, whereas sometimes rated 71% and
it is a high percentage. 29% goes to most of the time. And none of them
answered by never and I think it is possible because we are not native
The last question was about the number of times they
read their composition before give it to their professor, 8% claimed that they
were not reading it at all, 71% answered that they read it only one time, the
choice which rated the highest percentage, 21% chose many times.
This study has a great importance in the field of
education, especially for language teachers who suffer when they are correcting
student’s paper, while they could make better performance once the idea changes
in their mind and follow certain rules to correct those errors and mistakes.
Whereas many marks are deducted regarding to this issue.
Teacher have to change their technique in teaching
especially for Arab students and present the student to more complicated rules
in order to improve.
The study which has conducted shown everything and
what students need to improve themselves. It was almost as same as previous