Biomes are defined as a large, distinctive complex of plant communities created and maintained through climate. Biomes are ecological areas – plants and animals. Abiotic factors are what characterizes a certain biome. Abiotic factors are non-living factors such as climate, pH, temperature, and etc. Abiotic factors in one way dictate the kind of organisms that thrive in the biome, only those that are able to adapt there are those that can thrive. A biome differs from an ecosystem. An ecosystem includes both biotic and abiotic factors in a certain area, and how these factors interact with each other. While biomes would include the abiotic and biotic factors that a geographic area would include the organisms living in there.
Botanists, ecologists, biologists, anthropologists, and climatologists, classify biomes in different ways. Some classifies them into 6 types of biomes. These are Tundra, Grassland, Forest, Desert, Marine, and Freshwater. Other scientist classifies them into different biomes, these are Tropical rainforest, Deciduous forest, and Taiga.
Tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. Taiga is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches. Deciduous forests, the principal factor operating in these forests is the seasonal appearance and disappearance of the canopy. Tropical rainforest occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest. Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses. Desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation.
Autotrophic organisms can subsist in an exclusively inorganic environment because they can manufacture their own complex organic compounds from inorganic raw materials taken from the surrounding media. Since the molecules of these raw materials are small enough and soluble enough to pass through cell membranes, autotrorophic organisms do not need to pretreat, or digest their nutrients before taking them into their cells.
Heterotrophic organisms mostly bacteria, fungi, and animals are incapable of manufacturing their own complex organic compounds from simple inorganic nutrients. Hence they must obtain prefabricated molecules from the environment. Many of the organic molecules found in nature are too large to be absorbed unaltered through cell membranes, and they must first be broken down into smaller, more easily absorbable molecule units and they must be digested.
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs can be found in biomes, since biomes are geographic area that has an organisms living in there. Autotrophs, obtains chemical energy through oxidation to make an organic substance from an inorganic substance, through the use of photosynthesis which utilizes light energy and by obtaining nutrients. While Heterotrophs, depend on autotrophs for organic substance since it’s organism are unable to produce organic substance from inorganic ones. Heterotrophs depend on autotrophs for organic substances, which heterotrophs will utilize to produce energy. Both play an essential roles in food chains and nutrient cycling.
The absence of one member or one abiotic factor can affect all the parties of the ecosystem. It is because, biotic members of an ecosystem, together with their abiotic factors depend on each other. Ecosystems are the foundations of the biosphere and they determine the health of the entire earth system. It is a vital life-support that provide services to human life, its well-being and to social development. Unfortunately, ecosystems have been disrupted and even destroyed by natural calamities such as floods, earthquakes, storms and volcanic eruptions. Abuse of human activities or human actions to the environment have also contributed to the disturbance of many ecosystems and biomes.