CHAPTER Development Association (NCDA) in the United States

CHAPTER
2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE & STUDIES

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In this life full of possibilities, decisions are
essential in making our lives head towards success and attainment. It gives our
lives the appropriate direction that we are opts to take in our future. Hence, decision-making
is a logical way of choosing one from the unlimited options to satisfy a man’s
ease (Alba, K. et al., 2010). It is one of the dilemmas that senior high school
students encounter in their lives where they face the reality that this certain
adjudication will be a step closer to their future careers. Moreover, it is not
a matter of fun and enjoyment, but a matter of life and death because it
requires mature and rigid discussions among the students (Alba, K. et al.,
2010). However, during the career decision, it is inevitable for students to be
spared from conflicts and issues that is why there are identified factors that
either positively or negatively affect the future career decisions of senior
high school students.

A study conducted by the group of Alba, K. in the year
2010, found out that student’s abilities or academic performances gave much
impact on the student’s college course preference. Since student’s mistakes are
highly inevitable, it would be necessary to contemplate on their profile of
abilities that which will be guided and counseled by their parents and
counselor. The researchers suggested that the higher the students are aware about
their aptitudes; they are more likely to anticipate the career option and
course choice that is best suited for them. This will aid in lessening the
burden of students in decision-making. Moreover, the National Career Development
Association (NCDA) in the United States in 1993 specified that it would be
highly necessary to assist students in contemplating their “abilities,
interests, values and goals” which are the “vital foundations of the career
development process” (Pascual, N., 2014, pg. 2). Thus, Qualifax, Ireland’s
National Learner’s Database (2018), also concluded that it is one of the
prerequisites for students in choosing a college course to develop a certain
level of self-awareness and to complexly evaluate one’s aptitudes, which will
be the basis for the success of their career choices.

A recent study by Malgwi, C. et al. (2005) showed that
the most influential factor that affect undergraduates’ college choice
preference, regardless of their gender, is their interest towards different
fields. It was supported by the studies of Kim et al. (2002) and Strasser et
al. (2002). However, there are still gender differences that influence the
student’s decision – women influenced by their aptitude in the subject, and men
influenced by the level of pay in the field. Hence, in the end, these gender
differences changed over time and the researchers concluded that both genders –
men and women – seem to be more alike in the factors that influence their
college course preference (Malgawi, C. et al., 2005).

Furthermore, parental interference also influence the
career decisions made by students, but as modern day dawns, maturity precedes
over these individuals that allows them to revolt from the choices made by their
parents (Shukla, A., 2009). This was supported by Thao (2009), where he
conducted a study of the Hmong/Mong students. His results led to a conclusion
where parental involvement has a great role to play in the career choice of the
adolescent students. Likewise, a student is most likely to succeed in their
careers due to parental pressure where they are obliged to submit their selves and
follow the aspirations of their parents (Saysay, K., 2011). In addition, a
study conducted by Keller, B. and Whiston, S. (2008) concurred that parents
could be a “source of general psychosocial support” that motivates, inspires,
and encourages their children in pursuing their future careers. Among the other
general factors, it is said that parental guidance is more salient in influencing
career preparation.

It is said that Filipinos are known for their loyalty
and respect to their elders. Hence, when it comes to decision making, individuals
always seek for guidance from their family members, especially their parents.
According to Pascual (2014), “out of respect and loyalty, it may not be
appropriate to express personal desires; rather, one may alter one’s interests
to maintain harmony” (pg. 4). He then concurred that due to the obedient virtue
of young Filipinos, they tend to follow their parent’s decisions regarding
their college courses. In this manner, the young Filipinos are able to fulfill
the aspirations of their parents and accomplish them not just for the sake of
their selves, but for their families.

Besides, Shukla (2009) claimed that the modern-aged
youth are quite “immature and impulsive” to decide for their career choices.
Their indecisiveness will often lead to faltered college course choices where
they will unfortunately encounter predicaments, such as misfit graduates and
dropouts, which will hinder them in achieving their career aspirations.
Moreover, individuals are also more likely to be influenced by other external
factors during decision-making which concerns their parents about their
children’s affairs. However, the youth of the present generation tend to revolt
against the impediment from their parents regarding their college course
preference (Shukla, A., 2009). Nevertheless, a parental guidance is still
significant as parents are most likely to influence and intensively guide their
children’s career decisions.

COUNSELORS

Aside from the family-, school- and peer-related
factors, Filipino parents also take into consideration some economic factors:
employability of the jobs, in-demand jobs, and the family’s financial, which
are relevant to the success of their children’s future professions (Saysay, K.,
2011). Individuals take into consideration the chance or feasibility of being
employed after their tertiary studies in choosing their college courses. Practically
speaking, college education should act as building blocks that will aid
students in accomplishing their aspirations. Hence, nobody wants to study a
course that might seem to have a lesser employability in the future for it will
anticipate wasted efforts, opportunities, money, and time (Alba, K. et al.,
2010).

  In other cases, the economic or financial status
of a family dictates the course that a student must choose. Amidst their determination
in pursuing the career choice, their financial stability confines their choices
which will eventually result in choosing a more practical college course (Alba,
K. et al., 2010). This factor has been given importance of some students coming
from unfortunate families, where they disregard their interests and aptitudes
towards the subjects and highly prioritize the educational expenses. Thus,
students end up with a practical and cheaper college course that they don’t
excel in, which is a serious educational concern that needs to be addressed
nowadays.

In line with the financial issue, there are some measures
that will aid students in choosing their college course without the hesitation
regarding their financial stability. Yargo, J. (2010) reported that
scholarships and grants are the most effective way in addressing educational-financial
issues of unfortunate families. Though they may have some prerequisites before
attaining a scholarship or a grant, this will motivate students to thrive
harder in pursuing their career tracks. Moreover,