Chapter very useful in the course of teaching.

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM

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Background of the Study

          The
growing need for a strong, self-reliant nation and a great dynamic economy gave
recognition to home economics as one of the prevocational subjects that must be
offered by all students in the Junior Secondary SchoolIntegrated Home economics
(a combination of Food and Nutrition, Home management, Clothing and Textile) is
taught as one of the electives amidst Agricultural Science, and Business
Studies. While in the Senior Secondary School, it is divided into Food and
Nutrition, Home management and Clothing and Textiles. Students therefore have
the options of offering any one of the aforementioned areas. As stated in FGN
(2004), the objective of Home Economics in the secondary school curriculum.

Information and communication
technology (ICT) is rapidly developing nowadays, as many people are interested
in everything modern and new.

          Home
Economics refers to profession and field that deals with economics and
management of the home and community.

          FGN
(2001), ICT is any equipment or interconnected system

of equipment that is used in the
automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, control, display,
switching and transmission of information. These include computer applications,
internet and newsprints, radio, television and telephones.

          ICT
Tools/Materials Useful in Teaching Home Economics   as a skill oriented subject has the
potentials to equip individual with the basic skills and knowledge for self-employment.
In the light of this, the three main areas of Home economics (Home Management,
Foo ds and Nutrition and Clothing and Textile) can be learnt by using ICT
tools. For instance, radio, television, the web, search engines, cameras,
video, e-mail, computer, CD-ROM and DVD are all ICT tools. Amongst the tools
mentioned, is the computer which has become indispensable in the world of ICTs.
Any Home economics teacher who is computer literate should find the computer
very useful in the course of teaching. The computer becomes a major tool of
assessing information when it is connected to the internet. The internet is
full of current and up to date information in all the areas of Home Economics.

          Some
Social Networks Found Useful in the Teaching of Home Economics Options ICT have
become an integral and accepted part of everyday life form any people, most
especially the use of social networks among youths. Its increasing importance
gives a clear signal that in no distant time, it will become a functional
requirement for employment in the world of work. This calls for a paradigm
shift from the conventional approaches used for teaching Home Economics to the
use of ICT tools.

          According
to Nwosu (2010) the utilization of ICTs in education could lead to
cost-effectiveness in learning, bridging the gap between teachers-students’
ratio, and improve the overall quality of learning.       What about an IT in education policy in Philippines? Is the
government acting upon the need for the integration of ICT to enable the young
people to keep pace with the changing needs of the technological world? These
questions provide the starting point for this investigation.

          ICT
encourages the creative use of modern information technologies to construct
learning environments which are rich, varied and facilitate the development of
student-centered learning practices’ (Murchu& Freeman, 2012).

Contrary to what most people think, the
K-12 program trains students in joining the workforce as early as 7th grade.
The TLE or technological livelihood education subjects in junior high school or
JHS follow the rules of the Technical Education and Skills Development
Authority or TESDA. This will allow the students to earn a national
certification (NC) required by the industry.

The ultimate goal of this proposal
study was to encourage teachers to enhance their teaching with effective ways
of using ICT as a pedagogic practice as well as build favorable attitudes and
get accustomed to the technologies which suit the TLE subject methodologies. The
researcher therefore intended to investigate the use of information and
communication technology (ICT) in TLE in Tadian, Mt. Province.

Conceptual Framework

Mastering ICT skills and utilizing ICT
towards creating an improved teaching and learning environment is of utmost
importance to teachers in creating a new learning culture. Many teachers lack
the knowledge and skills to effectively use ICT tools in facilitating learning
in increasingly ICT-pervasive learning environments. Some teacher-training
programmes have over-emphasized computer literacy while not enabling teachers
to integrate technology with pedagogy and facilitate ICT-assisted interactive
teaching-learning at classroom level to promote English Language teaching and
learning (Sekaran, 2011).

Currently, the use of information and communication technologies
(ICT) in education does not conclusively demonstrate significant effects on
learning. However, not all ICT usage models are designed to affect student
outcomes. Therefore, to accurately study the impact of ICT, the concept of an
educational programme supported by ICT must first be defined. The authors
propose the ICT for Education (ICT4E) programme, an evidence-based framework to
determine a model’s ability to produce improvements before having to evaluate
its results. The framework has four components: implementation, intervention,
transference and total cost. Based on an explicit definition of the outcomes
pursued by a given programme, this framework supports the design of its
activities to promote sustainable changes in pedagogical practices in schools
and calculate the programme’s total cost. The authors illustrate this with a
programme implemented in six countries. In Chile, the ICT4E programme forms
part of the policy for educational technology, evaluating the effectiveness and
scalability of such initiatives (Rodriguez, P. et.al.,
2012).

Content
and Pedagogy focus on instructional practices of teachers and their knowledge
of the curriculum. It requires that teachers apply ICT in their respective
disciplines to support and extend teaching and learning. 

 Collaboration and networking showcase the
communicative potential of ICT to extend learning beyond the classroom and
necessitate the development of new knowledge and skills. The real power of ICT
comes from new ways of communicating beyond the four walls of the classroom and
by locating information from worldwide sources wherever these may be located.
The implication for teachers as they assist their students in collaborating
with other learning groups and using networks to research assignment topics is
that they cease to be the main source of knowledge in the classroom. Instead,
teachers’ roles change from being “a sage on the stage” to becoming “a guide on
the side”.  Through collaboration and
networking, professional teachers promote democratic learning within the
classroom and draw upon expertise both locally and globally (Daniel, B.S.,
et.al, 2010). Technical infrastructure and technical support for ICT
integration throughout the curriculum. 

These
core competencies can be seen as ‘cluster objectives that are critical for the
successful use of ICT as a tool for learning’ (Daniel, B.S., et.al, 2010). They
can be developed and utilized in technology-pedagogy integration in four
supportive themes. This includes’context and culture’, ‘Leadership and Vision’,
‘Life Long Learning’ and ‘Planning andManagement of Change’.  Teaching and learning ‘involve a process of
engaging minds and opening upawareness for exploration and discovery’, through
such acts as providing information, demonstrating processes, giving examples,
asking questions, giving feedback, exchanging ideas and performing tasks
(Wright, 2011). Fundamental and most central to this process are

talking
and communication through languages. Technologies augment this teachinglearning
process in various ways. Human communication, or teacher-pupil interaction, is
central to the process of learning. The use of Instant Messaging tools which
include e-mail exchanges, audio and video conferencing could facilitate
information exchange, giving feedback and provide opportunities for asking
questions (Lamy, 2014).

The
most crucial factor in integrating ICT into teaching and learning depends on
the extent to which various guiding principles of the integration are
formulated and applied. While using ICT for creating a new learning culture,
one has to take into consideration the current social and economic conditions,
existing telecommunication infrastructure and cultural and linguistic factors.
Furthermore, ICT tools have to be infused into pedagogy in such a way that its
uses improve learning.

Paradigm of the Study

 

          The
concept of the study wasstrengthened by the schematic relationships of the input,
process and output as reflected in the operational paradigm of the study. The
variables are interconnected by each other by an arrow head. The first box
consists of the input which consist of the following:applicability of the
teachers and school heads in the use of information and communication
technology,benefits of ICT in Home economics teachers and school heads in the
use of information and communication technology, factors affecting

 

Output
 
1.
Enhancement of ICT in instruction
 
 
 
 
 
 

INPUT
 
Use
of ICT in Home Economics instruction

PROCESS
 
– Descriptive method
-Participant observation
– Questionnaire
-Statistical treatment of data
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1

Paradigm of the Study

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the use of home economic teachers and
school heads of information and communication technology, and recommendation to
improve the use of  home economics
teachers and school heads in information and communication technology.

          The
second box contains the throughput, these are the:level of applicability of the
teachers and school heads in the use of information and communication
technology, extent of benefits of ICT in Home economics teachers and school
heads in the use of information and communication technology, extent of effect
of factors affecting the use of home economics teachers and school heads of
information and communication technologyand degree of need of recommendations
to improve the use of home economics teachers and school heads in information
and communications technology.

The third box contains the output:  enhancement of ICT in Teaching, action plan
to improve more the skills teachers, to understand the factors affecting the
use of ICT by the  home economic
teachers’ and school heads, identify and recommend solution for the problem
encountered between in the usage of ICT.

Statement of the Problem

         

The study aimed to determine the Information and
Communication

technology
in Home Economics instruction in the Junior High School of TadianSchools,
Division of Mt. Province through information and communication technology.

          Specifically, this study 
sought the answer to the following questions:

1.  
What
is the level of applicability ofInformation and

Communication Technology (ICT) in
teaching Home Economics?

2.    What is the extent of benefits of Information
and

Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching
Home Economics?

3.   
What
is the extent of effect of factors affecting the use of

Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) in teaching  HomeEconomics?

4.   
What
is the degree of need of recommendationsto improve the

use
of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teachingHomeEconomics?

Null Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses was
tested in this study.

1.  
There
is no significant difference of responses on the level of

applicability of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching Home Economics.

2.   
There
is no significant difference of responses on the extent of

benefits
of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching Home Economics.

3.   
There
is no significant difference of the responses on theeffect

of
factors affecting the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)in
teaching Home Economics.

4.   
There is no significant difference of
the responses on the degree
of

recommendations
to improve the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in
teachingHomeEconomics.