In be able to see that their parent’s

In this paper, I will be
examining the effects of a parent’s personal attachment style on their child’s
development. This is significant because a child’s foundational building blocks
on relationships comes from their very first relationship, their mom and dad.
In the studies I will write about below, we will be able to see that their
parent’s attachment style affects their relationship with their peers,
themselves, and the overall world. Furthermore, there also shows a correlation
between the child’s self-esteem and self-image to their parent’s attachment
style, this subject seems extremely vital especially in adolescents.  Developmental psychology as a whole would surely
be missing a fundamental piece of a child’s development if we did not look into
their parent’s attachment style. Since attachment style usually reflects either
functional or dysfunctional relationships, if this issue is more deeply studied
by psychologists can create more effective plans to help young people get out
of that cycle. Creating these more effective programs can mean a decrease of
young people staying in abusive relationships and building a stronger self-identity.

 

Attachment,
parenting styles and bullying during pubertal years

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In
this study, the scientists found a relationship between the parent’s attachment
style and the likely hood of a child experiencing bullying. Starting off, the
parent-child relationship can have the same qualities as a bully-bullied
relationship. Qualities such as rejection, aggression, lack of empathy, etc.
The more that a child is exposed to these negative behaviors at home, the more
they are likely to repeat these behaviors with their peers and become bullies. When
a child is subject to a parent with insecure attachment, they are more likely
to have a negative view of themselves and expect to experience rejection from
others. (Simons et  256 van der Watt al.
2001). Because of this, they are more likely to be victims of bullying. If a
child has parents that have a supportive attachment style they are less likely
to be bullied or the bully. They are also more likely to have a closer, more
open relationship with their parents as a whole.  This study exemplifies how a parent’s
attachment style can affect their child’s interaction with their peers as they
begin to get older.

How do relationships support parenting? effects of attachment
style and social support on parenting behavior in an at-Risk population

Parents
that displayed an avoidant attachment style showed a lack of interest in
becoming parents and were less involved in their children’s school work. (Rholes et al. 1995 and 1997) Oppositely, people who
were showed more of an ambivalent attachment style questioned their

abilities to be a good
parent, despite having a strong desire to become a parent. (Rholes et al. 1997)
It seems that ambivalent types fear failing their children and doubt their
capabilities, while avoidant personalities avoid closeness and intimacy to
their children just as they do with all other people in their lives. I
hypothesize that the effects of a child having an avoidant parent can cause the
child to feel neglected and unwanted, based on the parent’s lack of interest in
connecting with the child. But with an ambivalent parent, I hypothesize that
the child would take on the parent’s poor self-image and possibly a lack of
self-efficacy based on their parent’s lack of belief in themselves. In
populations that face consistent strain- such as overworked, under supported,
or the poor- stress seems to cause more volatility the parent’s attachment
styles. When it comes to attachment and parenting styles, stress seems to be an
influencer on how the parent’s attachment behaviors interact with their
children. This lack of stability in the parent’s attachment style will affect
their child’s ability to have a positive relationship with their parents which
will affect the both the child’s ability to have a stable attachment type with
others in their life. 

Adult
attachment style and parental responsiveness during a stressful event.

This
study analyzes how a parent’s attachment type affects how they react to their
child during a stressful event for the child- in this case, an inoculation. This
study found that the attachment style that a person has in romantic
relationships might be an indicator of what type of parent the person will be.
For example, parents that were avoidant struggled with their children depending
on them during the inoculation, just as they struggle with being depended on in
all of their relationships. Based on this information, I theorize that a parent
with an insecure attachment type- which is usually characterized by their neediness
for example- to become over-protective to their child because of this
neediness. Thus, affecting their relationship with their child by making them
less emotionally independent. In the case of the avoidant parent example I
mentioned above, the child would probably feel rejected and hurt by their
parent’s lack of support when they needed them, thus causing more strife and
resentment in the parent-child union.

Maternal
Attachment Style and Responses to Adolescents’ Negative Emotions: The Mediating
Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation.

Avoidant types in both romantic and parental relationships
tend to be closed off and unavailable to others’ emotions. (Edelstein
et al., 2004; Goodman et al., 1997; Rholes et al., 1999; Simpson et al., 1992) When
the child is put in a stressful position, they look to their parents for support.
Instead of reacting with kindness and warmth, avoident mothers tend to become angry
at their children for becoming stressed. (see Rholes et al., 1999, for relevant
evidence related to caregiving in romantic relationships)

Sadly, this study did not find a link between any other
attachment styles and the responsiveness to a child’s distress. While it was previously
found that an anxious attachment type would find that someone elses’ distress to
cause more anxiety, (Mikulincer et al.,2001; Monin, Schulz, Feeney, & Cook,
2010), they found no link to the mothers’ responses and the childs’ stress. If anything
the stress that child endures might bring them and their mother closer together.
The child can find comfort in their mother and the mother can find her need for
intimacy to be met, which could possibly lead to a closer relationship.

Parental attachment style:
examination of links with parent secure base provision and adolescent secure
base use

This
study found that while fathers’ attachment styles did not affect how
adolescents viewed them, mothers’ attachment style did affect how their child
viewed them. In particular, when a mother was avoidant, their teen viewed them
as less supportive, less warm, and more aggressive. Society pushes the gender
stereotypes that women are warm, affectionate, nurturing, and understanding.
(e.g., Bem, 1974) When avoidant mothers do not meet this expectation, their
children begin to view them negatively. Interestingly enough, adolescents do
not view the needy behavior of a mother with insecure attachment as negative
because it is congruent with the stereotype of a mother. (Feeney, 2006; Jones et al., 2014;) I hypothesize that when
these children feel that their mother does not meet what a mother should be, it
damages their relationship quite a bit and causes a sense of abandonment within
them. Specifically with girls, it could possibly cause a loss in identity
because how can she know how to be a mother- or even a woman- if she does not
feel that her mom is a proper example?

Newland et al., 2010).

Limitations of These
Studies

In
the “Adult attachment style and parental responsiveness during a stressful
event” study, there was a severe lack of information on the other attachment
types outside of avoidant. They should go more in depth on the other attachment
types for a more rounded study.

The
study about parenting, attachment styles, and bullying needs
deeper analysis on exactly why and how the secure attachment types produced the
lack of bullying in a child. The definition of a secure attachment type is more
than just the lack of negative traits, it should’ve gone deeper into what were
the parents were doing and how that affected the child.

In
the “How do relationships support parenting?
effects of attachment style and social support on parenting behavior in an
at-Risk population” study, I they should go deeper into what exactly does that
destabilization of the parent’s attachment style actually look like with the
child. For an avoidant type for example, is it more of an emotional act such as
pulling away or a physical act such as physically abusing the child?

In
the study, “Maternal Attachment Style and Responses to
Adolescents’ Negative Emotions: The Mediating Role of Maternal Emotion
Regulation” the fact that the mothers were asked to self-report their reactions
to their children causes a skew in data because there is the possibility that
the women were not fully honest about their reactions to their child. They
could also be reporting what they perceived they did, rather than what actually
happened.

In
the “Parental attachment style: examination of links with parent secure base
provision and adolescent secure base use” study, the only families that were
sampled were 2-parent homes with over an $60,000 annual salary, which limits
what type of data they could’ve gathered. If they used a diverse pool of
participants such as single parent homes or homes with a step parent, they
would’ve had a wider scope on the issue as a whole.

In
all the studies, there should be more focus on the other attachment types as well.
They focused the majority of the studies only on avoidant types, which is only one
piece of the puzzle.

Future Research

In the “Adult attachment style and parental
responsiveness during a stressful event” study,
while they both the romantic relationships and child-parent seem to show the
same attachment type, they should explore exactly how similar these two
relationships actually mirror each other in terms of attachment behavior. For
example, does the mindset that a child is forever versus the temporariness of a
significant other change how an avoidant or insecure type interact with the two
parties?

In
the “Parenting, Attachment Styles, and Bullying” study, there could be a
further study into how the child can possibly group up with a parent that has a
dysfunctional attachment type, but cultivate their own healthy habits and
attachment type outside of their parent’s influence.

In
the “How do relationships support parenting?
effects of attachment style and social support on parenting behavior in an
at-Risk population” study, there could be further research into how these
parents can transfer that stress that destabilizes their attachment style, into
habits that can positively influence their child and bring their relationship
closer rather than further away.

In
the “Maternal Attachment Style and Responses to Adolescents’ Negative Emotions:
The Mediating Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation” study, they only studied
mothers and their reactions to their children. Future research could include
how the father’s attachment style interacts and affects the child. Even more
interestingly-,how both parents attachment styles interact with each other
romantically and with the child, and how this affects the child.

In
the “Parental attachment style: examination of links with parent secure base
provision and adolescent secure base use” study, they should further their
research into how the father’s attachment style affects the child on a deeper
level since they found that the father and mother’s attachment style affect the
child differently.