International to provide the public regulatory services for

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) was initially established in 1964 as an international intergovernmental organization with 11 member States operating the global constellation of communications satellites for the members’ communication services. It requested the multilateral coordination for the member States between the Intelsat system and their domestic public and specified services as well as their separate system to ensure the compatibility and full utility. However, it was divided into two parts due to the restructuration and privatization with the purpose of expanding its business scope, namely the Intelsat Ltd. and a small International Telecommunications Satellite Organization with 148 member States aiming to “addressing international concerns related to satellite services as safety and the provision of satellite services to developing countries”  (Pelton, Joseph N.; Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, 2013).  The International Mobile Satellite Organization (INMARSAT, currently IMSO) was established in 1979 as an intergovernmental organization for providing and governing the mobile communications services provision to the maritime community and aircraft and portable users. It was privatized in 1999 as a private company for the purpose of commercialization and competition. The regulatory body IMSO was maintained to provide the public regulatory services for the global maritime distress safety, etc.(Sgrosso, 2011). Another international organization was Interspuntik International Organization of Space Communications, established in 1971. It has developed 25 member States to date. It mainly works on “the lease of satellite capacity to the telecommunications operators, broadcasters and other clients, as well as services for the establishment, engineering, and operation of satellite networks” (Pelton, Joseph N.; Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, 2013).Except the international organizations abovementioned, there have been already many regional organizations and national agencies for the telecommunications policy regulation and governance, such as the Asia-Pacific Satellite Communications Council (APSCC), European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTELSAT), the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellite (EUMETSAT) and the Regional African Satellite Communications Organization (RASCOM) and etc.,. It is also noted that some of these organizations are intergovernmental ones and got privatized with the trend of the dynamic telecommunication market(Pelton, Joseph N.; Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, 2013).  According to ITU, it advocates the ‘freedom of information’, which has already been followed at the regional level and national level. For example, the Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers adopted the Declaration on the ‘Freedom of Expression and Information’. When it comes to sovereignty security, it has aroused more considerations and concerns. With the rapid development of telecommunications technology, the direct-to-home television (DTH) appeared. It enabled the viewers to “receive images broadcasted from another State or region of the world via small individual satellite dishes (less than 50 cm)”. Thus many countries regulated on the principles of non-intervention of the sovereign rights principles, and also requested the responsibility and liability undertaken by the States which conveyed the message, which is also in compliance with the international law. The ‘freedom of information’ and related services can only work within the framework of public policy and security (Sgrosso, 2011).Besides, the technical and data security of the telecommunications system is another concern for a long time as the telecommunications application has gone into the daily life very deeply. The hacker attack on the telecommunications operator might disrupt the phone services, internet services, and even hamper the national security. With the development of technology, such as the mobility and cloud computing emerge, the frontier of the security risks of telecommunications were expanded. “One mounting technology concern among operators is Internet route hijacking, also known as IP hijacking, an exploit in which adversaries corrupt routing tables to ‘hijack’ packets of data”(Lobel, 2014). Thus ITU, as a governing entity of telecommunication industry, has already put forward many recommendations and standards for the related entities to follow in order to improve the technical security, such as making Recommendation X.805 to define the basic security architecture and dimensions, analyzing the vulnerabilities, threats and risks, as well as formulating the security framework requirements (Thomas, 2003).