LITERATURE measurement of the different types of obstruction

LITERATURE REVIEW

1 Thomas ,Rajan P ,K K, Jithin et al. The proposed system „The
Ultrasonic Range Detector? employs an ultrasonic module that consists of an
ultrasonic transmitter and receiver along with anATmega16a microcontroller. It
works by transmitting a short pulse of sound at a frequency inaudible to the
ear (ultrasonic sound or ultrasound). Afterwards the microcontroller listens
for an echo. The time elapsed during transmission to echo reception gives
information on the distance to the object. We aimed at designing rangefinder
free from the conventional problems arising from the undesirable direct waves,
wherein a signal level for detecting a right signal due to the reflection waves
from a ranging object is automatically varied and the detection of the right
signal is made inaccurate by the time-dependent signal level.

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2 Christofer N.
Yalung, C. M. Automation
of the car braking system is an important feature in the development of the
smart car. The ability of a smart car to detect and classify an obstruction
that is in varying proximities from it play a vital role in the system’s
design. In this study, EV3 Lego Mind storm equipped with an ultrasonic sensor
was used as a model of a large scale vehicle. EV3 Lego Mind storm was
programmed to slow down when it is at a certain distance from the obstruction,
and to stop when it is 15 cm away from the obstruction. There were five
obstructions: wood, paper, cloth, plastic and metal. The distance measurement
of the ultrasonic sensor and the Neural Network was used for the classification
of the obstruction and Multiple Correlation was used for obstacle detection.
There were 250 samples taken from the distance measurements of five different
types of obstruction, each with a different cross sectional area, and a total
recording time of 8 seconds. Overall, there is a high correlation coefficient
in the distance measurement of the different types of obstruction materials. It
is concluded that the ultrasonic sensor was able to detect the five given types
of obstruction. Classification performance was very poor, which means that on
the basis of distance measurement, the ultrasonic sensor cannot effectively
classify the types of obstructions.

3 M. Hariansyah1 , Setiawan R.P.A2 , et
al. The measurement of ploughing depth is still carried out manually using
ruler which pinned down into the soil through leg fissure and its narrow leg.
This practice is considered as non-valid measurement. Therefore, an improved
measurement should be developed such as using ultrasonic sensor. The objective
of this research was to (a) develop automatic mole ploughing depth elevation
measurement, and (b) gain the deviation magnitude resulted from set point and
ploughing depth elevation position. Ultrasonic sensor was permanently attached
heading to the target. A plat was attached onto hydraulic support. The sensor
will detect the ploughing depth distance when the hydraulic lifting or lowering
the mole plough. As shown in the result of ploughing depth elevation, it could
be seen that ultrasonic distance sensor was appropriate to detect the ploughing
depth. The deviation occurred at M, N, O and P tracks with magnitude of 0,99%;
1,04%; 0,63% and 0,87% respectively.

 

4 Tahir, Muqaddas Bin and Abdullah,
Musarat. Cars
and vehicles have been incorporated into culture as one of the most
resourceful, easiest and accessible means of transportation available. But
besides being a suitable and common means, it is equally an incredibly
dangerous mode of transport. Thousands of people die in vehicle accidents each
year, whether it is accident with another vehicle or with a motionless object.
A method of early accident exposure and evasion can control several accidents
that may be associated to factors such as loss of control, careless driving,
tired/intoxicated drivers, and not paying concentration to the road. As the
current market does not present a normal safety feature in any car, the use of
sensory tools to sense potentially hazardous objects a definite distance away and
either slows the car down or shove to a safer path has not been released. In
this research paper a new technique is introduced for safety against accidents.
Eight ultrasonic sensors are used to sense different types of objects. By
implementing a possible improvement in safety/sanctuary systems in vehicles,
the vehicle and sensor would be able to operate normally until the sensor
detects possible risk. In our project, the sensor does not give output or
signal until the car comes within ~75 feet of an object, at which timer sends
information of hurdle to driver. The sensor only indicates the presence of an
object; it is up to the user or driver to tackle the hurdle.

5 C, Vigneshwari, et al. This paper is focussed to
develop an electronic navigation system for visually impaired, that makes use
of sensors for obstacle detection. People who are visually impaired struggle
every day in performing actions that can be as simple as moving from one point
to another without falling down or knocking against obstacles. An Electronic
Travel Aid (ETA) is a form of assistive technology having the purpose of
enhancing mobility for the blind and visually impaired (VI) pedestrian.
Assistive devices designed to aid visually impaired people need to deal with
two different issues: at first they need to capture contextual information
(distance of an obstacle, position of the sensors, environment around the
user), followed by their need to communicate to the user with those observed
information. Sensors are deployed for obstacle detection. The real time signal
reflected from the obstacles is collected by the sensor and Arduino Board
processes the signal. Based on the processed data, appropriate decision is
taken by the microcontroller in it. Accordingly a relevant message is invoked from
the flash memory. Further this can be extended to communicate or deliver the
decision to the subject via earphones

 

6 Cheng,
Tsu-Jui, et al. The
use of walking aids is prevalent among older people and people with mobility
impairment. Rollators are designed to support outdoor mobility and require the
user to negotiate curbs and slopes in the urban environment. Despite the
prevalence of rollators, analysis of their use outside of controlled
environments has received relatively little attention. This Letter reports on
an initial study to characterise rollator movement. An inertial measurement
unit (IMU) was used to measure the motion of the rollator and analytical
approaches were developed to extract features characterising the rollator
movement, properties of the surface and push events. The analytics were tested
in two situations: first, a healthy participant used a rollator in a laboratory
using a motion capture system to obtain ground truth. Second, the IMU was used
to measure the movement of a rollator being used by a user with multiple
sclerosis on a flat surface, cross-slope, up and down slopes and up and down a
step. The results showed that surface inclination and distance travelled
measured by the IMU have close approximation to the results from ground truth;
therefore, demonstrating the potential for IMU-derived metrics to characterise
rollator movement and user’s pushing style in the outdoor environment.

7 Dune, C., P. Gorce, and J. P. Merlet, et al. Clinical evaluation of frailty in the elderly is the first
step to decide the degree of assistance they require. This evaluation is
usually performed once and for all by filling standard forms with
macro-information about standing and walking abilities. Advances in robotics
make it possible to turn a standard assistance device into an augmented device.
The existing tests could then be enriched by a new set of daily measured
criteria derived from the daily use of standard assistance devices. This paper
surveys existing Smart Walker to figure out whether they can be used for gait
monitoring and frailty evaluation, focusing on the user-system interaction.
Biomechanical gait analysis methods are presented and compared to robotics
system designs, to highlight their convergences and differences. On the one hand,
monitoring devices try to estimate accurately biomechanical features, whereas,
on the other hand, walking assistance and fall prevention do not systematically
rely on an accurate human model and prefer heuristics on the user-robot state.

8 Hellström,
Thomas, et al. Walking
aids such as rollators help a lot of individuals to maintain mobility and
independence. While these devices clearly improve balance and mobility they
also lead to increased risk of falling accidents. With an increasing proportion
of elderly in the population, there is a clear need for improving these
devices. This paper describes ongoing work on the development of ROAR – an
intelligent rollator that can help users with limited vision, cognition or
motoric abilities. Automatic detection and avoidance of obstacles such as
furniture and doorposts simplify usage in cluttered indoor environments. For
outdoors usage, the design includes a function to avoid curbs and other holes
that may otherwise cause serious accidents. Ongoing work includes a novel
approach to compensate for sideway drift that occur both indoors and outdoors
for users with certain types of cognitive or motoric disabilities. Also the
control mechanism differs from other similar designs. Steering is achieved by activating
electrical brakes instead of turning the front wheels. Furthermore, cheap
infrared sensors are used instead of a laser scanner for detection of
objects.  Altogether, the design is believed to lead to increased
acceptability, lower price and safer operation.

9 Ballesteros, Joaquin, et al. Gait analysis can provide valuable information on a person’s
condition and rehabilitation progress. Gait is typically captured using
external equipment and/or wearable sensors. These tests are largely constrained
to specific controlled environments. In addition, gait analysis often requires
experts for calibration, operation and/or to place sensors on volunteers.
Alternatively, mobility support devices like rollators can be equipped with
onboard sensors to monitor gait parameters, while users perform their
Activities of Daily Living. Gait analysis in rollators may use odometry and
force sensors in the handlebars. However, force based estimation of gait
parameters is less accurate than traditional methods, especially when rollators
are not properly used. This paper presents an evaluation of force based gait
analysis using a smart rollator on different groups of users to determine when
this methodology is applicable. In a second stage, the rollator is used in
combination with two lab-based gait analysis systems to assess the rollator
estimation error. Our results show that: (i) there is an inverse relation
between the variance in the force difference between handlebars and support on
the handlebars—related to the user condition—and the estimation error; and (ii)
this error is lower than 10% when the variation in the force difference is
above 7 N. This lower limit was exceeded by the 95.83% of our challenged
volunteers. In conclusion, rollators are useful for gait characterization as
long as users really need the device for ambulation.

10 Ni, Dejing, et al. It
is a challenging task for the visually impaired to perceive environment
information and walk independently. This paper presents a novel design of a
walking assistant robotic system based on computer vision and tactile
perception. A novel rollator structure is applied to provide a strong physical
support. A Kinect device is used as eyes of the visually impaired to capture
the front environment information including color images and depth images. And
ultrasonic sensors are utilized to detect the evenness of road surface. A
wearable vibro-tactile belt is designed to provide the visually impaired with
the environment information through different vibration modes. A feature
extraction method of safe directions based on depth image compression is
proposed. Background difference method is used to realize moving object
detection in order to help the visually impaired perceive environment
conditions. The experiment results show that the wearable vibro-tactile belt is
practical and the walking assistant robotic system is effective and helpful in
aiding the visually impaired to walk independently.

11 Hellström, Thomas, et al. An intelligent rollator (IRO)
was developed that aims at obstacle detection and guidance to avoid collisions
and accidental falls. The IRO is a retrofit four-wheeled rollator with an
embedded computer, two solenoid brakes, rotation sensors on the wheels and
IR-distance sensors. The value reported by each distance sensor was compared in
the computer to a nominal distance. Deviations indicated a present obstacle and
caused activation of one of the brakes in order to influence the direction of
motion to avoid the obstacle. The IRO was tested by seven healthy subjects with
simulated restricted and blurred sight and five stroke subjects on a
standardised indoor track with obstacles. All tested subjects walked faster
with intelligence deactivated. Three out of five stroke patients experienced
more detected obstacles with intelligence activated. This suggests enhanced
safety during walking with IRO. Further studies are required to explore the
full value of the IRO.

12 Martins, M., Santos, C., et al. This paper
proposes to present and discuss in detail the design of a novel handlebar of a
motorized walker to be used as an interface between the user and the motor
controller of the wheels. This device enables the user to indicate and command
the direction and speed of the walker’s motion. This new interface intends to
be user-friendly and low cost. Safety considerations are also addressed to
detect user’s fall. Preliminary results indicate that it is feasible to combine
low cost sensors with a simple motor control, allowing a smooth and enjoyable
driving, and fast response of the walker with no sense of delay.

13 MacNamara, S., , G. (2000). This paper describes the design of a smart mobility
aid for frail, visually impaired people. The device is based on the concept of
a walker or rollator-a walking frame with wheels. This work is motivated by the
fact the frail visually impaired have extreme difficulty using conventional
mobility aids such as guide dogs or long canes. The device, which is called
PAM-AID (Personal Adaptive Mobility Aid) has two modes of operation, manual and
assistive. In manual mode the device behaves very much like a normal walker
and, in addition, provides the user with information on the environment via a
speech interface. In assistive mode, the PAM-AID assumes control of the
steering and navigates safely around obstacles. The PAM-AID was evaluated in
residential homes for the elderly.

 

14 Chan, A. D., & Green, J. R. (2008, May). An overview of the Smart Rollator prototype is
presented in this paper. The Smart Rollator utilizes an ambulatory assistive
device, namely a rollator, to provide a non-obtrusive monitoring system. With
the aging population, the need for technologies that support independent
living, and assist in maintaining the health and well-being of older adults is
growing. The Smart Rollator prototype consists of a number of subsystems
including: distance/speed monitoring, tri-axial acceleration monitoring, force
monitoring, seat usage monitoring, and physiological monitoring. Data are
transmitted wirelessly through a local data terminal to a remote server. Using
remote data terminals various people can view and perform analyses on these
data (e.g. rollator user, family members, health care professionals). The Smart
Rollator is intended to improve the utility of conventional rollators by
enabling remote monitoring capabilities that will support on-going care and
rehabilitation, as well as potentially impact rollator design and prescription.

15Grondin, S. L., & Li, Q. (2013, June). Recent
technological advances have allowed the development of force-dependent,
intelligently controlled smart walkers that are able to provide users with
enhanced mobility, support and gait assistance. The purpose of this study was
to develop an intelligent rule-based controller for a smart walker to achieve a
smooth interaction between the user and the walker. This study developed a
rule-based mapping between the interaction force, measured by a load cell
attached to the walker handle, and the acceleration of the walker. Ten young,
healthy subjects were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed
controller compared to a well-known admittance-based control system. There were
no significant differences between the two control systems concerning their
user experience, velocity profiles or average cost of transportation. However,
the admittance-based control system required a 1.2N lower average interaction
force to maintain the 1m/s target speed (p = 0.002). Metabolic data also
indicated that smart walker-assisted gait could considerably reduce the
metabolic demand of walking with a four-legged walker.

16Joly, Cyril, Claire Dune, et al. Clinical evaluation of frailty in the elderly is
the first step to decide the degree of assistance they require. Advances in
robotics make it possible to turn a standard assistance device into an
augmented device that may enrich the existing tests with new sets of daily
measured criteria. In this paper we use a standard 4 wheeled rollator, equipped
with a Kinect sensors and odometers, for biomechanical gait analysis. This
paper focuses on the method we develop to measure and estimate legs and feet
position during an assisted walk. The results are compared with motion capture
data, as a ground truth. Preliminary results obtained on four healthy persons
show that relevant data can be extracted for gait analysis. Some criteria are
accurate with regards to the ground truth, eg. foot orientation and ankle angle.

17 Valadão
C, Caldeira E, et al. This paper presents the development of a smart
walker that uses a formation controller in its displacements. Encoders, a laser
range finder and ultrasound are the sensors used in the walker. The control
actions are based on the user (human) location, who is the actual formation
leader. There is neither a sensor attached to the user’s body nor force sensors
attached to the arm supports of the walker, and thus, the control algorithm
projects the measurements taken from the laser sensor into the user reference
and, then, calculates the linear and angular walker’s velocity to keep the
formation (distance and angle) in relation to the user. An algorithm was
developed to detect the user’s legs, whose distances from the laser sensor
provide the information necessary to the controller. The controller was
theoretically analyzed regarding its stability, simulated and validated with
real users, showing accurate performance in all experiments. In addition,
safety rules are used to check both the user and the device conditions, in
order to guarantee that the user will not have any risks when using the smart
walker. The applicability of this device is for helping people with lower limb
mobility impairments.