orphological seagrass and mangrove habitats in terms of

orphological investigation involve the study of the external characteristics of organisms. This can be helpful in identifying species. Phytochemical screenings, meanwhile, is the analysis of the seconday metabolites present in certain types plants. Together, these two processes, when used in studies, can help in the identification of the species and its medicinal compounds. Some example of these type of studies are what follows.The present study revealed that fish assemblage structure varied significantly among coral, seagrass, and mangrove habitats at the study sites, although differences between seagrass and mangrove habitats in terms of species richness and abundance were not significant. The 199 fish species recorded only in coral reefs was accounted for approximately 75% of all fish species recorded, whereas only nine and 15 fish species exclusively utilized in seagrass and mangrove habitats, respectively (Table S1). Although the majority of fish species was found in coral reefs, the other habitats also yielded several unique species. The fact that five families of fish were found only in mangrove habitats emphasizes the need to conserve multiple habitats even without considering connectivity.On another study, More than 37% of the commercial fish recorded in this study utilized seagrass and/or mangrove habitats or one of these habitats in combination with coral reefs, and more than 34% of the fish that utilized multiple habitats in this study were commercial species. In addition, six of seven species that exhibited possible ontogenetic habitat shifts (the exception being S. lineata) were commercial species. Thus, the inclusion of adjacent seagrass beds and mangrove areas connected to coral reefs in the same MPA offers several important benefits: increased carbon dioxide fixation or sequestration by seagrasses and mangroves, buffering against disasters such as high waves, enhanced conservation of biodiversity of organisms, and increased sustainability of fishery resources.According to Fortes, seagrass beds and mangrove forests are disappearing worldwide; consequently, the species richness and biomass of fishes and invertebrates decrease with such habitat losses. In the present study, 14 fish species that utilize mangroves were recorded in the transplanted mangrove area, and most of these species were multiple habitat users, indicating that both natural and transplanted mangroves play an important role as habitat for some reef fishes. Moreover, this finding suggests that transplanting mangroves can be useful in terms of fishery resource conservation and recovery. The total number of fish species considered as mangrove users at LD was half in the value observed at PG, even though the two sites did not greatly differ in the number of multiple habitat users. Almost two decades have passed since mangroves were transplanted at LD; however, much more time may be needed for the colonization of fish species that are dependent on mangroves for their recovery and population replenishment, as only a few natural mangroves exist nearby as sources of populations of fish species. The fact that S. orbicularis was the only fish species unique to mangrove areas at LD supports this hypothesis.On another study, the most appropriate extraction procedure to detect inhibitory activity of plants and the interaction between antifungal components and plant extracts when tested against dermatophytes  it aimed to determine the medicinal plants that are inhibitory to the selected species of dermatophytes. Twenty plant samples collected from SAKA and some backyards and bought from the market in Indang, Cavite were extracted and used in the preparation of methanol, decoction, and crude extracts. These extracts were tested against species of T. rubrum and Microsporum canis using disk diffusion assay. Results showed that garlic juice and methanol extract of calamansi were inhibitory to Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum. Additive effect was observed in combinations of itraconazole and plant extracts.According to Ilagan et. al. (2012), their study is to evaluate the antifungal activity of selected medicinal plant extracts against clinical isolates of Candida species, determine the phytochemicals present in various medicinal plant extracts with antifungal activity, and analyze the type of interaction exhibited by combinations of plant extracts and antifungal compound for the treatment of candidiasis. Thirty plant samples were extracted and used in the preparation of dichloromethane (DCM), methanol, decoction, and crude extracts. These extract with and without combination of antibiotic were tested against three species of Candida (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei) using disk diffusion assay. The methods of Cannell (Methods in biochemistry: natural products isolation, Humana Press Inc., Totowa, 1998) and Roopashree et al. (Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 1(3):20–28, 2008) were adopted to identify the general phytochemical groups present in the plant extracts. Results showed that potential activities depend on the method of extraction and the solvents used. Five out of 30 DCM extracts inhibited C. albicans mildly, 13 showed antifungal activity against C. parapsilosis, and 25 extracts demonstrated growth inhibition of C. krusei. More plant samples using DCM as solvent inhibited C. krusei than C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. Qualitative phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of various compounds in the extract. Combinations of plant extracts and antibiotic resulted to different types of interaction: antagonism, additive, or synergism.On another study, Seagrass assessment included plot method determination of seagrass percent cover, speciescomposition, blade density per species, shoot density and above ground biomass. Three 50 m long fixed transects 25 m apart were established running parallel to shore in each site. Monthly to bimonthly ecological monitoring was conducted between August 2006 to March 2008 in CALAPARAN, which is a NAGISA seagrass site in the Philippines, and from October/November 2006 to March 2008 in KALIROHAN and LAWI.According to Nievales, Seagrass beds are considered one of the most productive natural ecosystems in the world (Phillips, 1978). They serve as nursery, refugia, breeding ground and home to many marine fishes, reptiles, and invertebrates with important economic, ecological and conservation value (in Thorhaug,1986; in Walker & McComb, 1992). McManus et al. (1992) estimated some 20mT of fish, seaweeds and invertebrates may be harvested per km2 per year in a seagrass bed. Seagrass beds help sustain the energy flow and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and minerals, and ensure the continuity of the life cycle of biota shared with adjacent habitats like mangroves and coral reefs. In Guimaras, seagrass meadows serve as center of economic activity (e.g. shellfish gleaning, seaweed farming, sea cucumber collection and fishing using gill nets). These economic activities were hampered by the oil spill. There are few case studies in the tropics which looked at impacts of bunker fuel contamination on seagrasses. Having in mind these economic and ecological services of seagrass habitats, this study aims to explore how tropical seagrass meadows respond hydrocarbon contamination in the form of bunker fuel oil spill. The specific objectives are: To compare the pre- and post-oil spill structure of a contaminated seagrass meadow; To describe the temporal changes in structural properties of seagrass meadows within and outside of the area exposed to the oil spill.These local studies are example of related studies which involve the use of morphological analysis and phytochemical screening. Based on these studies, those two processes have helped in finding out compound present in the plants which have the verification of the species.