Prostitution in a difficult financial situation. Moreover, some

Prostitution

Prostitution
can be defined as the provision of sexual services for money. The word “prostitute”
became common in the of 18th century. During the ancient times this
kind of services had been supplied for economic rewards mainly by courtesans, concubines
or slaves. Courtesans and concubines often held high positions in traditional
societies. The main feature of modern prostitution is that women and men tend
not to know each other. Although sometimes men become “regular clients”.  This was not characteristics of most forms of
sexual services for economic reward in ancient times. In traditional small
communities, sexual relationships were controlled so that never been a secret.

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Nowadays people prefer anonymity. Presently, prostitutes mostly come from poor
social strata, as it was in the past, but recently a large number of women from
middle class has joined. The increase in the number of divorces encourages a
lot of women to “sell themselves” as they find themselves in a difficult
financial situation. Moreover, some women who do not manage to find suitable job
by the time they graduate go to work in massage salons, escort services etc.,
while trying to find a decent job.

The
institute of the family, which was formed relatively late, entered into a
certain contradiction with human nature and, first of all, with its inherent
powerful sexual energy, imposed on it the characteristic regulatory
restrictions, bound it with the bonds of morality and rights. On this
psychophysiological and sociopolitical backdrop, prostitution looks like a
sphere of additional social and sexual services, bringing the required variety
to the everyday life of men, which does not bring a tangible damage to
family-marriage relations, which, paradoxically, serves to strengthen society,
including the institution families.

In
the vast complex of modern conceptual explanatory models of the phenomenon of
prostitution developed by western researchers, there are several directions for
its sociological interpretation: functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic
interactionism and feminism. So, here I will try to explain what society thinks
about prostitution form these four perspectives.

Functionalist
perspective claims that a prostitution is a normal social phenomenon that has a
multipurpose social and historical nature, inherent to all times and people, regardless
of the level of their civilization. They believe that prostitution must be
controlled, but it is absolutely impossible to eradicate it. Society and the
state should not fight against prostitution as such, but with those factors
that make it socially dangerous, destructive, criminogenic. Taking a stringent
measure is inexpedient, as a result it will lead to the black market, so it
will not be under control, and cause public danger. Prostitution exists due to
the peculiarities of human psychophysiology and, first of all, due to the fact
that the social institution of family with its normative nature does not fully
meet the sexual interests of men. Functionalists believe that if a married man
was not able to diversify his sexual life with the help pf prostitutes, for
whom he does not have any moral responsibilities, he would seek for serious
relationships with other women, which can create a serious threat to his
marriage. Without this type of social institution, the number of sexual crimes,
especially rape, would increase noticeably. There is another significant factor
that forces men to turn to prostitutes, it is called “temporary sexual
isolation” or in other words the state of divorce, widowhood, separation from
the family due to the work circumstances etc. along with these normal, natural
and social factors that stimulate the existence of the institution of
prostitution, there are pathological factors of psychological and
psychophysiological nature that do not allow men to build normal intimate relationships
with women on the basis of mutual affection and love.

Radical
feminism, the third type of feminist theories suggests, that men are in any
case interested in maintaining the patriarchy regime. The patriarchate in this
case is a special term, pointing to the principle of culture, political and
economic domination of men. In patriarchy, the man is the getter, the one who
does, and the woman is the one who waits, the women is a free sexual servant. So,
feminists believe that prostitution supports this theory, which they have been
fighting against. They believe that it encourages the idea that women can be
sold and bought and are less valuable than men. Men who use the services of
prostitutes bear a major share of the responsibility for the fact that some of
the women are in the humiliated situation of victims forced to trade their
bodies. They turned women into objects of possession, legalized violence over
their bodies and souls, turned into an object of purchase. Often, there are men
who have poorly developed mechanisms of social and psychological adaptation,
unable to build a healthy relationship in their family full-blooded sexual
partnership, who have not found themselves a constant, answering all their
claims to a mistress, experiencing various difficulties in communicating with
normal women, experiencing a state of insecurity in himself. Prostitution is a
kind of reflection of the real disposition of the attitude of the sexes in
society, the mirror of the stereotypes of prevailing sexual morality and
ideology, and in this respect, it should be considered not a testimony to
deviance or social pathology, but a direct manifestation of the general state
of morals in the sexual sphere.

According
to conflict theory prostitution is a result of economic inequality is society. Every
person has his own destiny. Someone was born to be happy and he is lucky in all
endeavors. And someone suffers from the childhood. Most of the prostitutes
raised by dysfunctional families. By families, where parents consume alcohol
and drugs, where the children are fended for themselves. Growing up in this
environment, these children follow the trail of their parents, watching this
picture of debauchery, it is this life they consider the standard of correct behavior.

Therefore, these women become prostitutes, due to the lack of custody and education.

Women from well-to-do families have more opportunities to earn money, or have
other sources of income.

According
to symbolic interactionism, prostitutes perform a very important service.

Despite all of the above, prostitutes were respected in certain branches of
everyday life in ancient times. For example, in Vienna it was normal to participate
in reception of high-level guests, and were given a privilege to have speech in
front of the guests. They used to believe that if a woman was barren, the
meeting with the prostitute was supposed to bring fertility. In Italy people
believed that if three stones are excavated from under the threshold of
prostitute’s house and are laid on the chest of the patient, it would bring
healing. In Leipzig, during festivities, when death is chased, prostitutes symbolize
the motif of “happiness and joy of life”. Nowadays interactionists subdivide
prostitutes into different groups and types, reveal the most characteristic
patterns of their social “career”. So, the most common classifications
are the following two: the first is based on the factor of localization of the
foci of prostitution: 1) street, station, port prostitutes, the cheapest,
occupying the lowest step in the hierarchy of their professional shop; 2) hotel
and restaurant prostitutes, serving hotels, clubs, casinos; 3) “call
girls”, intended for middle-class secured customers; 4) elite prostitutes,
serving the highest social groups – statesmen, politicians, bankers,
businessmen, artists. The second classification model is based on the time
factor: beginner prostitutes; women who have been engaged on prostitution for a
long time; random prostitutes, for whom prostitution is for one reason or
another is a short-term, one-off nature.

Prostitution
is a kind of reflection of the real disposition of the attitude of the sexes in
society, the mirror of the stereotypes of prevailing sexual morality and ideology,
and in this respect, it should be considered not a testimony to deviance or
social pathology, but a direct manifestation of the general state of morals in
the sexual sphere. Prostitution corrupts not only women, but also men who, as a
result of acquiring negative social experience of sex bought for money, become
towards women cynical, harsh, selfish, convinced of the total corruption of
women, in the absence of true love, loyalty, decency. With the help of a
prostitute, a man is immersed in the illusory state of his power, where he
wants to satisfy all his desires, where he is in the position of lord,
conqueror, possessor of the maximum possible power and freedom.