Resilience is the ability of
people to deal with harmful experiences in their lives (Hoge, et al., 2007). It is the process of adapting well to
stressful circumstances and overcome the problems with a positive attitude (Young, et al., 2008). Being resilient
does not mean that a person does not feel emotional pain from a difficulty.
Instead, a resilient person has found the strength to deal with it more quickly
than other people (Hoge, et al., 2007). Resilience is not
an inherent characteristic that people either have or do not have (Easterbrooks,
et al., 2013; Yin, 2014). It is a process that can be learned
and developed in anyone (Padron, et al., 1999). In the field of
education, resilience is the capacity of children to thrive in school despite
the adverse environmental circumstances (Benard, 1991).
and Jablow (2011) considered that a combination of attributes contributes to resilience.
Competence supports children to participate
actively and succeed in the school environment. Another factor that affects
resilience is confidence. Students who have developed competence are more
likely to be confident. Also, the character is associated with the ability to
manage our emotions and understanding others people beliefs. Moreover, creating
a supportive connection with an adult affects resilience in students. In
addition, children who are able to make contributions to their social
environment often ask for help in a challenging task. Also, the coping skills
help them to overcome more quickly life’s difficulties. Resilience is connected
to individual’s control. A child learns to make his/her own decisions and
recognize their impact in their future.
has shown that school has the power to affect the resilient skills of hearing
students and support them to deal with stressful situations (Benard, 1991). The strategies used
by teachers provide three protective factors that support children to build
resilience. The first factor is about relationships include love, trust and
respect. It has been proved that resilient students interacted more with their
teachers in a learning environment, talked with each other and asked them questions
than non resilient students (Padron, et al., 1999). A second factor is
related to high expectations for all students (Benard, 1991). Teachers who see
children as capable persons give them support to develop their language and
reading abilities, whereas non resilient children struggle in their classwork (Padron, et
Also, the resilient skills of young learners are affected by opportunities to
participate effectively and make useful contributions to their peers (Benard,
studies indicated that deaf students with a severe or profound hearing loss
face difficulty developing their social and emotional skills in a mainstream
school. Deafness itself is not the reason why deaf students face these
difficulties. In spite, educational institutions may not teach them effectively
how to overcome the risky challenges. Resilient deaf students can overcome the
environmental barriers that neglect and exclude them (Young,
et al., 2008).
However, deaf children in
a mainstream class feel rejected from their hearing peers because they cannot
communicate effectively and establish close relationships (Kluwin, et al., 2002; Antia, et al., 2011; Nunes, et
al., 2001). Peer relations are a significant factor to develop social
competence in deaf children. They give
them chances to positively interact with other hearing students and participate
in school activities (Arnold & Tremblay,
1979; Luthar, 1991).
Although, an increasing
number of studies has been conducted in the social and emotional development of
students with a severe or profound hearing loss, the literature background
related to students with a mild to moderate hearing loss is limited. It is
found that learners with a mild to moderate hearing loss often have problems of
attention, communication difficulties and delayed language skills (Terlektsi, 2010). Also, the Ear
Foundation report to National Deaf Children’s Society (NDCS) sheds light on those
students’ difficulties to socialize with their peers (Archbold, et al., 2015). They often feel
tired from several strategies which enforce them to interact with their peers.
Turning to classroom sessions, the help of hearing aids and radio (FM) systems does
not always facilitate the educational process. Many mainstream teachers refer
to particular problems in encouraging students with mild to moderate hearing
loss to wear them. Thus, my study aims to fill the gap in the literature by
investigating how the teaching strategies and the peer relations affect
resilient skills of those students.