Review a local garden throughout the study. The

Review
of Related Literature

Extraction,
Separation and Identification of Chemical Ingredients of Elephantopus Scaber L. Using Factorial Design of Experiment

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Introduction

In 19th century, the progress of organic chemistry
is connected in the studying of plants. When the first study of it is
scientifically recorded. It results in the segragation of some active
components  from plants (Wheelwring, E.G,
1974) . In a significant way, the vegetal kingdom contributed in the supply of
useful substances for treating human diseases (Galhiane, M.S., 2006).  Elephantopus
Scaber L. belongs to the Asreceae family. The entire plant of it is a perennial
herb a well known medicine in treating dampness, nephritis, chest pain, edema,
fever and cough that was caused by pneumonia, scabies and arthralgia. ( Peer,
L. M. 1980 & Tsai, C. C, 1999). It is frequently used as a medication for
bronchitis, athritis, gastrophaty, and carbuncle.

This plant was known to have a great ampount of
bioactive compounds which includes phytochemicals, lipids, pigments and
pharmaceutics. In this study, Soxhlet Extraction method is used when extracting
and separating the chemical components of the plant and it was studied experimentally.
When doing Soxhlet Extraction, it has alot of advantages because it only
requires inexpensive and simple equipments that is not hard to operate.

Materials
and Methods

Pristine Elephantopus
Scaber L. were acquire from a local garden throughout the study. The
pristine samples was gathered in adequate amount ten kilograms at a time. Usual
operation was done to gather the samples. The plant is divided into root, stem
and leaves. The plant was cleaned using a tap 
water, then it was rinsed by using a distilled water and the parts of it
are divided into small. The roots, stem and leaves were dried in an open area
until they achieve a uniform weight. The parts of the plant were dried  in the oven. The first and final weight were
gathered, the difference in weight defines the moisture contents. Next is the
Soxhelt extraction to extract different compositions using hexane and methanol.
Lastly, the Statistical Analysis. Factorial design and variance are used for
the analysis of the data acquired from the extraction experiment. The impact
from claiming three factors around rate of extraction as a reaction variables
would extraction duration of the time (four levels; 3, 6, 9, 12 hr), the
experiment is in random order using factorial design of 4x2x3 (Montgomery,
2005). Three replicates were utilized to every compound the whole number of
operate was 72.

Conclusion

This study concludes that Soxhlet Extraction process
can be an alternative procedure for separation and extraction of chemical
components from medical herbs. The conclusions of the whole study are the
firmness of the number of rate of extraction for Elephantophus Scaber L. were measured in different parts of the
plant such as roots, stem and leaves with different types of solvents, methanol
and hexane. Separately over various  period, three hours, six hours, nine hours,
and nine hours. The study shows that methanol is higher in quality than hexane
when it comes to solvent about extracted yield. In addition,  the distinctive part of the plants have
different complimentary conditions such as the roots, it takes six hours with
hexane, and nine hours with methanol as its solvent. The stem takes nine hours
with hexane and nine hours with methanol as its solvent. The leaves takes six
hours with hexane and twelve hours with methanol as its solvent.

The significant
measure to conduct the extraction process contains the moisture and particle
size. It also shows that Elephantopus
scaber L. have multi-compounds such as deoxyelephantopin, sigmasterol,
stearic acid and lupeol. All of these chemicals have different amount in the
plant of Elephantopus scaber L (Ahmad
et al. 2009).