“The from 18-21” Derrick Nelson, Sunway College Abstract

 

 

 

 

“The effects of
electronic cigarettes towards the stamina of athletes in college ranging the
ages from 18-21”

 

Derrick Nelson,
Sunway College

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Abstract

There
are many speculations regarding this topic whereby whether electronic
cigarettes affect the stamina of athletes till the extent where it affects the
performance of the athlete. The public has the mental image that this activity
has a very strong negative effect on its users. This research aims to show the
effects of electronic cigarettes on the stamina of athletes. One of the
challenges that this research faces is getting a controlled e-liquid that could
be used for accurate results from the experiments. The conclusion is that in
this current generation, this activity has been looked down upon by majority of
the public due to the unproven misconception.

 

Introduction

This
research aims to investigate the effects of electronic cigarettes on the
stamina of athletes. This is to address the current misconception whereby this
activity is claimed to have negative effects on their health. This problem has
been circulating as the first impression when someone does this activity. The
purpose is to uncover the effects of electronic cigarettes on the stamina of
athletes and how it affects their performance. This research aims to clarify
the facts behind the side effects of smoking electronic cigarettes within
athletes that compete on a state and(or) national level. These athletes also have
no background of drug abuse or smoking history without any illnesses that could
affect the outcome of this research. E-Cigarettes comes in various designs and
sizes and with different designs, it has different capabilities in its usage.
This device produces an aerosol which is commonly known as “vapor”. These vapor
carry the content of the e-liquid that is used. It produces the aerosol with
the usage of a battery and a heating element. “Using an e-cigarette is
sometimes called “vaping.” (Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, n.d.).
This research only is for athletes of ages 18-21.

Methodology

This
research is based on the social theory whereby the general has an unproven
believe that using electronic cigarettes can greatly affect a person’s stamina
and well-being. A professor in political science claimed, “most e-cig models
are not very addictive” (ETTER, 2016). Furthermore, the EU
Tobacco Products Directive states that: “Electronic cigarettes can develop into
a gateway to nicotine addiction and ultimately traditional tobacco consumption
…. For this reason, it is appropriate to adopt a restrictive approach”. This
clearly shows the conflict between many sides of the argument. Based on these
theories this research aims to resolve this disagreement. This research will
study the direct effects of vaping prior to conducting psychical tasks.

 The
research will use participants with high athletic backgrounds. These
participants will have to gain approval from their respective coaches and
management to take part in this research. They are required to go training as
per normal for three days followed by a fitness evaluation conducted by a
certified fitness instructor. The results will become a control test result as
to compare to the following findings. After one week of usual training,
participants will be given a vape filled with juice which contains 6% nicotine.
This will be given for three days straight. On the fourth day, the participants
will be put through another fitness evaluation. All the results and compiled.
The participants are then left to continue with their normal lifestyle. After
another week, they will be evaluated again from their fitness again. This
research goes by a qualitative method over quantitative because this research
is fixed on a specific group of people to gather very specific results despite
not being able to apply to the public. This research generally aims to clear
the doubt of the above theories. The data collected will be assessed through
NVivo. This is a qualitative data analysis software.

This
research aims to answer the following questions.

Why
do people have a negative image on vaping?

What
are the direct effects of vaping on people’s stamina?

 

 

 

 

 

FINDINGS
AND DISCUSSION

 

TABLE 1

Participant no.

Fitness Test Result

1

8/10

2

7.9/10

3

8.3/10

4

7.5/10

5

7.7/10

 

TABLE 2

Participant no.

Fitness Test Result

1

8.1/10

2

7.9/10

3

8.3/10

4

7.4/10

5

7.9/10

 

The left column in Table 1 and Table 2
represents identification number of the participants. This is given to the
participants anonymously to maintain to validity of results. The right column
of Table 1 and Table 2 represents the fitness results of each participants.
Table 1 represents the data collected prior to being subjected to usage of any
e-cigarettes. Table 2 represents the data collected after being subjected to
the usage of any e-cigarettes.

The fitness result of a professional athlete
with core intensive training is 7.1 – 10.0. The fitness result of an average
person with no professional athletic background would be between the ranges of
3.5 -7.0. This would be the range of an amateur person whom has regular,
non-intensive trainings regularly. The average for a person whom rarely does
psychical activities would be between the ranges of 0.1 – 3.4. This represents
the people who rarely do exercise and only exercise on occasions.

The tests consist of various activities which
covers all aspects of a fitness evaluation. These aspects are aerobic fitness,
muscular fitness, bone strength, flexibility and balance.

Aerobic fitness is a referred to as activities
that increases the heart rate at moderate pace. This can be further improved by
consistency in routine workouts. This if here these participants are attending
regular training conducted by their respective team.

Fitness of the muscles in the body requires specific
exercises that enhances the strength of the specific muscle as well as
endurance in doing such activities. This is focusing on increasing the strength
of the major muscle groups; arms, shoulders, abdominals, chest, back, legs and
hips. Activities that can improve this aspect of fitness are lifting weights,
sit-ups, push-ups and various weight related activities.

Bone-strengthening activities are involving
weight-bearing exercises which involve exercises that revolves around using
heavy weight. This is due to the gravitational effect of doing these kinds of
exercises. Example, running, jumping rope, basketball, tennis and yoga.

Flexibility is the ability of a person to move
his/her joints to its maximum range without feeling any discomfort or pain. A
flexible person is most likely to have a better posture, excellent balance,
good coordination, swift movement and lower risks of getting injured during exercise.
To improve flexibility, one must stretch joints and muscles on a regular basis to
improve flexibility. Contrary to popular belief, it is always best to conduct
stretching drills after muscles are warmed-up.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE 3

Participant No.

Before subjected to
e-cigarettes

After subjected to
e-cigarettes

1

8/10

8.1/10

2

7.9/10

7.9/10

3

8.3/10

8.3/10

4

7.5/10

7.4/10

5

7.7/10

7.9/10

 

Table 3 shows a direct comparison between the
two tests conducted on the participants both before and after being subjected
to e-cigarettes.

Participants no. 1 show an increase in their
fitness result after being subjected to e-cigarettes by 0.1. This is followed
by participant number 5 also increasing their fitness result by 0.2. This is
followed by participant number 2 and 3 maintaining their result as a constant.
Lastly, participant number 4 has a lower second result by 0.2.

The results after being subjected to
e-cigarettes clearly contradicts the theory whereby e-cigarettes will affect one’s
stamina negatively. This is because based on this research only one out of the
five participants have shown a drop-in fitness result after being subjected to
e-cigarettes with a 6% nicotine content.

Furthermore, all the results of the athletes
are still on par with the requirements of the Majlis Sukan-Sukan Malaysia for
the sport of ice hockey which is 7.25 as a minimum result to be able to
represent the first-choice team in a professional and(or) semi-professional
competition for the country (Malaysia). The results obtained by the
participants (in Table 2) are still qualified to represent their team as a
first choice despite having subjected to e-cigarettes.

 

 

           

The variable that was thought to negatively
affect the result was the presence of nicotine in the e-cigarettes. Till date,
there is no scientific proof of whether nicotine really affects the fitness of
its users in the field of e-cigarettes. This is because e-cigarettes are still
uprising in its number of users, but no long term-study has successfully proven
that e-cigarettes can affect a person’s fitness. There are many theories, but
none proven which makes them invalid. Due to these theories, negative
impressions have been put into mind when brought to the topic of e-cigarettes.

Nicotine also has a known effect of increasing
metabolic rate and are also used to boost memory in the medical field. These
are possibly the reason the athletes improved to in their fitness result. With
higher metabolic rate they can lose more fat easily thus, increasing the muscle
mass and making them fitter and stronger.

“The general belief is that nicotine is one of
the most addictive substances on the planet. But the latest research does not
support this. Animal studies show nicotine to be only mildly addictive. Acetaldehyde,
another chemical found in tobacco smoke, was found to dramatically reinforce
the addictive properties of nicotine. Other chemicals that keep smokers hooked
on tobacco include anabasine, nornicotine, anatabine, cotinine, and myosmine. Once
again, nicotine is erroneously blamed for negatively affecting the fitness of
human beings.” (Johnston, 2013).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Literature Review

 

‘Comparison
of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality’  ( McAuley, 2012) This
research is aimed at studying the two different effects of thee usage of these
substances and how it affects the indoor air quality and the health impacts.
This is due to the proposal on banning the usage of e-cigarettes indoor. They
conducted the experiment by using four different e-liquids with high nicotine
content in two similar e-cigarettes and the emissions were assessed and
compared to those of tobacco smoke. The smoke from a tobacco cigarettes were conducted
as a control test.

 

            Their results were collected and in
comparisons of pollutant concentrations were made between e-cigarette vapor and
tobacco smoke samples. Pollutants were found in the emissions. The results were
analysed, and risk analysis was conducted to study the toxicological data of
these emissions. Non-cancer risk analysis revealed “No Significant Risk” possible
harm to human health  bases on the vapor
samples from e-liquids. In contrast, for the samples collected from the tobacco
smoke shows a level of “Significant Risk” of possible threat to human health. In
terms of cancer risk analysis, no sample of vapors from e-liquids exceeded the
risk limit for human health risk in any age group. The risk of cancer from
tobacco smoke still reaches the limits for adult exposure.       

            The authors, McAuley, Hopke,  Zhao &  Babaian are qualified to conduct this
research. McAuley is consulting for Health, Air, Nature & A Greener
Environment, LLC (CHANGE), Corporate Headquarters, Queensbury, NY, USA. These
qualifications make him qualified to conduct this research. He was assisted by Hopke,
 Zhao &  Babaian.

 Hopke,  Zhao are both from the Center for Air
Resources Science & Engineering (CARES), Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY,
USA. This makes the qualified to measure the air quality and analyze the
compound content of the air during the research. Lastly, S. Babaian is from the
National Vapers Club, Long Island, NY, USA. This makes him eligible to provide
a suitable e-cigarette for the experiment.

 

            Their results clearly show that the
proposal for bans on the usage of e-cigarettes indoor pose no significant risk
on the people in that area. This supports my results whereby no significant
difference was found in the two fitness tests on the participants.  ( McAuley, 2012) also stated that there no indicated possible
health issues with regards to the samples analysed in this research.

 

 

            ‘Levels
of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapor from electronic cigarettes.’  (Maciej Lukasz Goniewic,
2013) stated that electronic cigarettes is an
electronic device that is aimed to deliver nicotine into the body without
burning any form of tobacco via our respiratory organs mainly our mouths. They
are portrayed to transport nicotine without other harmful chemicals and also
said to be a safer option over cigarettes. This research is aimed at analysing
the e-cigarette vapour for four specific potentially harmful chemicals.

 

            The research was conducted by
generating e-cigarette vapour from 12 randomly selected brands of e-cigarettes.
The vapour was extracted via a modified smoking machine and the potentially
harmful chemicals were extracted and changed into either a solid or liquid form

 

            The author, Maciej Lukasz Goniewicz
is a part of the Department of Health Behavior, Division of Cancer Prevention
and Population Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, USA,
Tobacco Dependence Research Unit, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK and
the Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of
Silesia, Sosnowiec, Poland. This departments are highly associated with my
research topic. This makes Maciej Lukasz Goniewicz qualified to conduct this
research. This makes his findings highly credible and mostly relevant to my
research.

 

            The results of their research are
only partially supporting the findings of this research as they found some
traces of harmful chemicals in the e-cigarette vapour but its extremely less
harmful in comparison to cigarette smoke. This could mean that there are health
impacts of vapours to the human health. They also stated that that the health
impacts are unknown but chemically there could be unknown health impacts to the
human health. Whether major or minor, is yet to be known.

 

            ‘Nicotine Intake from Electronic Cigarettes on Initial Use and After 4
Weeks of Regular Use.’  (Peter Hajek, 2015) conducted this research by gathering six
smokers and providing pharmacokinetic (PK) information after the first time
using e-cigarettes and again after four weeks of usage . This enabled the
researchers to analyze the data and determine the health impacts of the
nicotine from the electronic cigarettes.

           

            The results are that the highest
point of nicotine in the body was found in the first five minutes of using the
e-cigarette. This shows that the e-cigarette is possibly providing nicotine to
the body via pulmonary absorption. There were various differences in nicotine found
in the body. In comparison to the PK information when starting to use the e-cigarette
and after four weeks of usage showed that there is a 24% increase in the
highest plasma concentration in the human body. Followed by an increase in
nicotine intake by seventy-nine percent which is from 115ng to 206ng

            These results in relation with my
research shows that despite the nicotine content in the user of an electronic
cigarette is higher than that of the conventional tobacco cigarette, nicotine
is shown to have no impact on the stamina. This can be seen in the results of
the experiment in Table 2. In conclusion,  (Peter Hajek, 2015) supports the results in my research.

 

 

 

 

References

Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, n.d. Electronic Cigarettes. Online
Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/index.htm
ETTER, P. J.-F., 2016. The gateway theory. London,
s.n.
Johnston, M., 2013. Where is the smoke…. Online

Available at: http://www.nzherald.co.nz/health/news/article.cfm?c_id=204&objectid=11143719
Maciej Lukasz Goniewic, J. K. M. G. L. K. A. S. J. K.
A. P. M. J.-C. C. R.-D. C. H. P. J. ,. N. B., 2013. Levels of selected
carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tobacco
Control.
Peter Hajek, P., 2015. Nicotine Intake From
Electronic Cigarettes on Initial Use and After 4 Weeks of Regular Use. NICOTINE
& TOBACCO, pp. 175-179.
T. R. McAuley, P. K. H. J. Z. &. S. B., 2012.
Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor
air quality. Inhalation Toxicology, pp. 850-857.
Villegeir, A.-S., 2007. Tranylcypromine enhancement
of nicotine self-administration. Neuroparmacology, pp. 1415-1425.