There ensure the welfare of the persons concerned.

There are three fundamental principles
of research ethics according to Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences (2015) which are respect for persons
or autonomy, beneficence and justice. The principle of respect for person or
autonomy consists of two requirements which is first, the individuals should be treated
as autonomous which means that the individual capable of making their own
decision about important personal matters. The individual should only be
involved in research if they have voluntarily give their consent and been fully
informed about the nature, purpose and consequences of the research. The participants’ right need to be respected so
that they can make their own decision whether to participate in the research. The principle of autonomy is
people with diminished autonomy should be protected which is the protection needs to be adapted to
individual circumstances, ensuring that the persons concerned are not involved
in research which could be harmful for them with regard to a research project.
This is because some people in society may not have the capacity to make fully
informed decisions.

            Beneficence is the act that is done
for the benefit of others or a duty to ensure the welfare of the persons
concerned. The research should do no harm and maximize benefits for
participants and minimize risks for participants. The purpose of the research
is to discover new information that would be helpful for the society in future.
It shouldn’t cause harm
to anyone or find out information at the expense of other people. There is
dilemma arises from the researcher in this case because to avoid the risks, the
researcher needs to know what is harmful. The evidence obtained from the study
will show whether it is beneficence or not. In order to identify what can
benefit the patients, it may be necessary to exposed them to risks although the
researchers are obligated to do their best to minimize those possible risks and
to maximize the benefits for participants.

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            The last fundamental principal is
justice which is deals with the concept of fairness that is the distribution of
burdens, risks, chances and benefits. Participants need to be treated with
equal respect and concern where the benefits of the research will be shared,
where feasible with
all of those affected by its results.  The participants will not be excluded from
research for reasons unrelated to the research. Researchers will be cognizant
of, and works to mitigate, imbalances in power between themselves and
participants, among individual participants, or between participants and the
groups to which they belong.