There in Bolivia, which caused this economic water

There
is a growing awareness of increasing demand of fresh water while the fossil groundwater
is limited. Over a long term, people from all over the world will suffer from
water scarcity. To address this problem, the United Nation Development
Programme (UNDP) has been established to help the poor people access to safe
water and basic sanitation. Bolivia, which is one of the poorest countries in
the world, offers a clear illustration about the lack of infrastructure in
developing countries. However, even Australia – a developed country – has
experienced a water crisis due to the droughts in rivers and lakes caused by
climate change. Therefore, water scarcity can be a threat to the world in the
future.

 

The
poverty in Bolivia, which caused this economic water scarcity, made it more
challenging for people to use water and sewage services. People in La Paz,
which is the administrative capital of Bolivia, gets water for only three hours
a day (Euronews 2016). Only 35% of people had piped water indoors, the others
relied on the outdoor steams or they didn’t have access to the drinking water
at all (Buxton, Escobar, Purkey & Lima 2013). The government had decided to
increase global connections to water services but they couldn’t afford, so
mostly they depended highly on the international aid investments for
infrastructure. “The drought affects 125,000 families … schools will close two
weeks earlier this year to prevent the spread of disease.”, said Rocio Lazarte
from La Paz’s Niño Jesús national school, “All we’ve had for the children was
the water from the hillside” (Euronews 2016).

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Apart
from the poverty of Bolivia, recent droughts in Australia and limited
groundwater systems made it one of the driest country in the world. Water is a
renewable resource, however due to the climate change, low rainfall occurred in
many parts of Australia led to a very low water storage level (Australian Water
Resources 2005). A report called ‘Thirsty Country: Climate Change and Drought
in Australia’ noted that Perth’s water demand is expected to outpace the city’s
supply approximately 85 billion litres by 2030 (Francis 2016). As well as other
cities like Melbourne, Sydney, … have annual stream flows decreasing dramatically.
Simply because Australia is a country with high atmospheric pressure which has
very low rainfall and the sea surface temperature is detected to be lower than
usual (Ocec 2012).

 

 In 2000, all inhabitants of Cochabamba, which is
a city of Bolivia, protested against the privatization of water drinking and sanitation
services in multinational company called Bechtel and then the law was quickly
revoked (We Are Water Project 2017). In the last 20 years, frequent changes of
the government of Bolivia have been made to face the water problem. Local
governments have devoted funds and people have donated to drill wells and
develop water transportation, with the support of the army in this country (Farthing
& Linda 2016). From 2010 to 2015, the plan was to have the infrastructure
built with $700 million but only 1,5% of the national budget is dedicated to improve
water and sanitation, while others are allocated to mining, hydrocarbon (Spronk
2015)… Therefore, Bolivia’s economy rise slowly while thousands of people don’t
have enough water to use today. In order to treat this issue , the project
called We Are Water Foundation in Bolivia brings up some great actions and help
children to go to school without carrying a bulk of water on their shoulder
everyday ( Andor 2017).

 

The return of drought in Australia has reduced the ground
water level to nearly the lowest in history. Although the world’s most
sophisticated modelling systems for measuring groundwater resources has been
built in Australia, we still cannot get enough water. Largely because of the
agriculture production, whose sector use the most water in this continent, while
residential consumption uses the least (GEO9 2015). Australia is located in
nowhere of the ocean, therefore desalination is the best method to transfer seawater
to drinking water. A system called Reverse Osmosis Membrane (RO Membrane) can apply
pressure to seawater and remove the salt from it, which will literally provide
enough water for industries. “As a result, this method is very expensive, but I
think it’s not unless to help Australian from the water shortages, because
Australia has enough money” ( OCEC JP 2012). The device is now selling online
and the government had made it easier for customers to buy with a suitable prize.

 

In general, water scarcity is an issue that will
affect greatly the amount of food and health of people worldwide. Actions must
be made to prevent climate change and help other developing countries that lack
of water services. Any renewable energy such as solar panels, wind turbines,…
can be very useful for developing countries such as Bolivia. Australia should
keep participate in projects that prevent the climate change from getting
worse.