This which are nearly about aligning learning outcomes

This chapter provides the background of the study that describes the reasons why the researcher intends to conduct the study. Then, the problems are formulated along with the objectives of the study. It is continued by the significance of the study to inform how the results of the study will be useful. Some limits about what are included in this study are given in the scope and limit of the study.Background of the ProblemIn curriculum 2013, the government and education system focus on the development in teaching and learning program which follow the 21st century and based on Higher Order Thinking in the learning standard. Recently, the curriculum systems promote the student centered, active learning, scientific discovery, competency based, and autonomous learner are realized in English textbook for students (Lampiran Permendikbud No. 81A, hal. 85). Teachers, the government and education system need to be more focused with what students have learned as a result of their learning experience than with what they know and can do regardless of the source of that knowledge or those skills. To improve quality in higher education, learning outcome and assessment is the core component in teaching and learning program. In addition, the learning and teaching strategies are focused on assessment also activities in the textbook which are nearly about aligning learning outcomes between assessment tasks.  Specifying assessment is also in one of the criteria in assessment tasks. All of this focus, the quality assurance and of institutions is on assessment as measurement. (Gibbs, 2004. p3)One of the main components in teaching and learning process is assessment. When teachers give some questions and students replay and react it also give some feedback or comment and students try to say and express by the structure and some new words, subconsciously the teachers make an assessment of students’ performance (Brown, 2004). The teachers can know students’ achievement by students’ responses, students activities in learning process which assessment task are also prepared to occur it. Develop students’ deep understanding from what they know, understand, and relate it each other is one of the assessment tasks of their educational experience (Airasian and Miranda, 2002). Assessment tasks help students to learn and for useful part at the end teaching and learning process also to gain valuable perception about how understanding might be extended. Intended learning outcomes has an important role in teaching and learning process before teachers enter the class and give some materials to the students, the teacher must know the intended learning outcomes firstly. According to Biggs (2011) stated that intended learning outcomes come firstly, the learning activities secondly, and the assessment practices or tasks as the necessary part in teaching and learning process. Intended learning outcomes aim to make the teaching and learning experience more transparent, clean and meaningful for students, also assessment tasks are prepared and designs to assess the learning outcomes and also to guide students of purposeful learning (Ambrose, 2010). Alignment is the process of analyzing how the main component of teaching and learning are built one another with the choosing courses for students’ material, activities, also assessment task. Alignment is set out to extent the teaching material, activities and assessment tasks which are referred to intended learning outcomes (Cohen, 1984). In addition, all components of teaching and learning process need to be aligned and relates on another. In other words, alignment is for understanding the degree of the component in educational work system relates and works in the same way (Matone et al. 2009).The textbook provides students to remember, understand, apply, analyse, evaluate, and create to make teaching and learning achievement successful. The Ministry of Education and Culture has determined the textbook published by Centre for Curriculum that textbook as the main resource that will be used in teaching and learning activity. (PP No. 13, 2015). English textbook commonly consist of four skills which are needed to fulfill students activities and achievement in learning English. Textbook is provided of choosing course in classroom lesson (Hutchinson & Torres, 1994). In the most language program, textbook is the core tool to help students gain information and knowledge. The textbook is designed to guide students to know and understand from what they will learn in some period of time (Richards J.C., The role of textbooks in a language program, 2001). Assessment tasks provided in textbook are one of the core elements in developing students’ thinking and understanding particularly from the lower-order thinking to the higher-order thinking level. The primary components of curriculum: objectives (also known in today’s vocabulary as content standards or curriculum standards), instructional activities and supporting materials, and assessments (including standardized tests). That is, curriculum alignment requires a strong link between objectives and assessments, between objectives and instructional activities and materials, and between assessments and instructional activities and materials. In other words, content validity, content coverage, and opportunity to learn are all included within the more general concept of “curriculum alignment.” Research QuestionsTo what extent are the assessment tasks in BSE Bahasa Inggris in alignment with intended learning outcomes (ILOs)? To answer that question, the writer proposes three sub questions:1. How can ILOs be described in English textbook in terms of assessment tasks relate to BRT?2. How can assessment tasks in English textbook align between the English textbook ILOs and assessment tasks be described?The Purpose of the StudyThis study is aimed to obtain a profile of alignment between Intended Learning Outcomes (ILO) with assessment tasks in BSE Grade VIII English textbook.Significance of the StudyThis study is expected to give several advantages to some participants such as English teacher of Junior High School in how the ILOs and assessment tasks should be aligned and help teachers to achieve students’ goals.  It will give better insight on how the assessment tasks are aligned in Intended Learning Outcomes in the textbook. For the writer, the results of this study will give profile about the alignment between ILOs and and assessment tasks represent in English textbook in terms of Bloom Revised Taxonomy. This study is also useful for other researchers to extend her knowledge about the relevance between ILOs and assessment tasks that should be represented in textbook. For the policy maker, this study will create awareness of assessment tasks and carry out the teaching development on how assessment tasks are going in the field which are aligned in Intended Learning Outcomes in the textbook.