Unconscious motives strongly affect the way we behave and
feel. according to Freud, the unconscious mind is the most important region
of the way humans behave
trigger our behaviour and feelings as grown-ups.
Psychodynamic theory views
our behaviour as caused entirely by unconscious factors over which we have no
control for example the slips of the tongue.
According to Freud,
personality is composed of the parts, the id, ego and superego (McLeod, 2007).
The id is the unconscious drive of need and
desires. It includes all the innate mechanisms of personality available at
birth, sex instinct and the aggressive instinct.
The superego is the ideal moral and value
teachings internalised into self which is learnt from parents or society.
The ego is the
personality that attempts to balance between the id unrealistic and the
superego realities. It is the decision making of personality (McLeod, 2007).
also said that a person’s personality is shaped in the first five years of
life through the five psychosexual stages of development.
Oral (0 – 1 years) this is the first stage of personality
development, the libido is centered in the baby’s mouth in which the baby
wants to put everything in its mouth thus satisfying the libido.
Anal stage, (1 & 3 years) Freud believes that at this age, the
libido is controlling the activities of the bladder and anus. Potty training
is seen to be a major challenge, this is because a child learn how to
regulate their bodily requirements.
Phallic stage (3.5 – 6 years) During this stage, the children
focuses in their genitals and masturbation and thus result new source
Latency (6 years – puberty). At this stage, the id’s forces are
suppressed while the superego develops. At this stage, a child is starting to
mature and growing social skills, values and interactions with peers and
adults outside the family.(Erupting mind, 2016)
Genital stage roused sexual
desires (puberty onwards). The start of
puberty causes the libido to become active once again. The child become
heterosexual rather than self-love. (Erupting mind, 2016
child because it takes in the environmental influences which assist in
moulding children to learn and open their own ways to knowledge.
is both nature and nurture. This is because, the superego, is based on
nurture as the superego is brought through the background and how the
children were trained. The id occurs because of nature since hunger and,
aggression are all in nature. (Nature, genetic inheritance is the main
influence on development and nurture, the environment is mainly liable for
the development result).
theory is also discontinuous since Freud accepts the concepts of stages in
the theory thus the five developmental stages