What of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders

What is Cybercrime?

In this modern era, Internet is not only a tool to use for work, study or
pleasure but also it plays a very important part of our everyday  life in general. This is an absolute true
that internet is a blessing for modern world but sometimes some evil people
uses the internet as a curse and they commit to do bad things that may harm
other peoples. From here cybercrime was originated.

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Cybercrime, also called Internet crime,
the use of a computer or any other electronic devices as an instrument to further
illegal ends. As like committing fraud, trafficking in child pornography and intellectual
property, stealing identities, or violating privacy using
internet and electronic devices. Cybercrime, especially through the Internet, has grown in importance as
the computer and mobile has become central to commerce, entertainment,
telecommunication and government 1.

 

The Offences and Categories of Cybercrime 3

According to the Department of Justice
computer crime can be categorizes in three ways:

 

Firstly, using computer as a target –
attacking the computers of others (for example, spreading viruses);

Secondly, using computer as a tool- using a
computer to commit “traditional crime” (for example, credit card
fraud); And third one is ,

Using computer as an accessory (for example
to store illegal or stolen information2.

 

According to The Tenth United Nations
Congress on the Prevention of Crime

and the Treatment of Offenders as of the year
2000 categorized

five offenses as cyber-crime:

1. Unauthorized access,

2. Damage to computer data or programs,

3. Sabotage to hinder the functioning of a
computer

system or network,

4. Unauthorized interception of data to, from
and within a

system or network,

5. And computer espionage.

 

Cyber Attacks

A cyber attack is may be define as  any type of offensive operation employed by
nation-states, individuals, groups, or organizations that targets computer
information systems, infrastructures, computer networks, and/or personal
computer devices by various means of malicious acts usually originating from an
anonymous source that either steals, alters, or destroys a specified target by hacking into a susceptible system.4

In general,  when anyone or any group try to do cyber
crimes through computer or another device network then their approaches are
called cyber attack. Actually this is more dangerous for the computer network.
Sometimes it can destroy the whole network system and can damage the important
data’s on your computer.

The cyber attack may be
mainly categorized into four types5. That is-

1. Denial of Service Attacks 5

Denial of service (DOS) is class of attack
where an attacker makes a computing or memory resource too busy or too full to
handle legitimate requests, thus denying legitimate user access to a machine.

2. Remote to Local (User) Attacks
(R2L) 5

A remote to local (R2L) attack is a class of
attacks where an attacker sends packets to a machine over network, then
exploits the machine’s vulnerability to illegally gain local access to a
machine. It occurs when an attacker who has the ability to send packets to a
machine over a network but who does not have an account on that machine exploits
some vulnerability to gain local access as a user of that machine.

 

3. User to Root Attacks (U2R) 5

User to root (U2R) attacks is a class of
attacks where an attacker starts with access to a normal user account on the
system and is able to exploit vulnerability to gain root access to the system
in which the attacker starts out with access to a normal user account on the
system (perhaps gained by sniffing passwords, a dictionary attack, or social
engineering) and is able to exploit some vulnerability to gain root access to
the system.

4. Probing 5

Probing is class of attacks where an attacker
scans a network to gather information or find known vulnerabilities. An
attacker with map of machine and services that are available on a network can use
the information to notice for exploit.

 

 

Who Are The Cyber
Criminals3

Cyber criminals, also known as hackers, often use computer
systems to gain access to business trade secrets and personal information for
malicious and exploitive purposes. But nowadays not only hackers but also
normal people may include in this region.

Cyber criminals may categorized into some
types. That are –

One is Identity
Thieves who try to gain access to their victims’ personal information –
name, address, phone number, place of employment, bank account, credit card
information and social security number. They use this information to make
financial transactions while impersonating their victims.

Another one is Internet Stalkers who maliciously monitor the
online activity of their victims to terrorize and/or acquire personal information.

 

Some are Phishing Scammers who attempt to get a hold of
personal or sensitive information through victims’ computers.

 

Some are Cyber Terrorists who do Cyber terrorism.  Cyber terrorism is a well-developed,
politically inspired cyber attack in which the cyber criminal attempts to steal
data and/or corrupt corporate or government computer systems and networks,
resulting in harm to countries, businesses, organizations and even individuals.

 

And there exist many normal
people who used to do cyber crimes in social media like facebook , whatsapp ,
imo etc. and cheat using mobile phone call also.

 

 

 

The Reason To Commit
Cyber Crimes 3

There are many reason to commit cyber crimes
.The reason can be described into two categories .One for Hackers and another
for normal people.

Hackers do it, because –

 

ü they know how and can, either being smart and figuring
out how to, or getting the instructions and tools from friends-hackers.

ü they like the challenge to break into something so
secure.

ü they get a trill of doing illegal activities and hoping
not to get caught

ü  they seek
publicity & they want to take a revenge

ü Because they are getting paid (though most hackers are

passionate about breaking into the system and do it for
free).

 

 

And the normal people do this just for make
fun of or for taking revenge. Sometimes psychological problem is also reason
for commit to do cyber crimes.

 

 

 

IMPACT OF CYBERCRIME

 

The impact of cybercrime is begger
description. The bad effect of cyber crimes can be affected individual people,
individual property , organizations and the government also .

 

 

Impact Of Cybercrime Against Individuals:6

Ø Harassment via
e-mails

Ø Cyber-stalking

Ø Pornography

Ø Defamation

Ø E-mail spoofing

Ø Fraud &
Cheating

Ø Fraud &
cheating on mobile banking (Bkash , Ukash)

 

 

 

Impacts against Individuals Property:6

Ø Computer Vandalism

Ø Transmitting
Virus/Worms

Ø Logic Bombs

Ø Trojan Attacks

Ø Web Jacking

Ø Internet Time
Thefts

Ø Intellectual
Property Crimes / Distribution of Pirated Software

 

Impact Of Cybercrime Against Organizations 6:

Ø Unauthorized Control/Access
over Computer System

Ø Possession of
unauthorized information

Ø Software Pirate and
Copyright

Ø Financial
Institutions are at risk

 

 

Impact Of Cybercrime Against The Government:6

The cyber attack
may affect the government organizations. The
growth of internet has shown that the medium of Cyberspace is being used by
individuals and groups to threaten the international governments as also to
terrorize the citizens of a country. This crime manifests itself into terrorism
when an individual “cracks” into a government or military maintained
website. In a report of it was said that internet was becoming a boon for the
terrorist organizations.

A cyber crime is generally a domestic issue,
which may have international consequences; however cyber terrorism is a global
concern, which has domestic as well as international consequences. The common
form of these terrorist attacks on the Internet is by

distributed denial of service attacks, hate
websites and hate emails, attacks on sensitive computer networks, etc.
Technology savvy terrorists are using 512-bit encryption, which is next to
impossible

to decrypt. The recent example may be cited
of – Osama Bin Laden, the LTTE, attack on America’s army deployment system
during Iraq war.

 

 

 

 

0Cyber
Attacks Detection Strategies 5

 

There are few
strategies to cyber attacks detection. That are –

 

Ø Intrusion Detection Systems
(IDS)

Ø Misuse Detection/Misbehavior
Detection

Ø Signature based Approach

Ø Anomaly Detection

Ø Analysis Approach

·      
Misuse/misbehavior

·      
Artificial Immune
System

·      
Anomaly

 

Some
Solution To Prevent Cyber Attacks

 

It is impossible to
prevent cyber attacks completely. But some awareness and techniques may prevent
the attacks.

Some prevent
approaches are –

 

 

 

Embedded Programming Approach 6

 

In this method some
parts of the processing is performed prior to the CADS. This preprocess will
significantly reduce the processing load on the CADS and consequently the main
CPU. has reported a similar work by programming the Network Interface Card (NIC).
This approach can have many properties including lower computational traffic
and higher performance for the main processor. Implementing this approach will
make it easier to detect variety of attacks such as Denial of Service (DoS)
attack. This is because the NIC is performing the major part of the processing
while the main processor only monitors the NIC operation.

 

 

 

Agent based Approach 6

 

In this approach,
servers can communicate with one another and can alarm each other. In order to
respond to an attack, sometimes it can be sufficient enough to disconnect a
subnet. In this type of system in order to contain a threat, the distributed
CADS can order severs, routers or network switches to disconnect a host or a
subnet. There are two approaches in implementing an agent based technology. In
the first approach, autonomous distributed agents are used to both monitor the
system and communicate with other agents in the network. A Multi- agent based
system will enjoy a better perception of the world surrounding it. Zhang et al.
report implementing a multi-agent based CADS where they have considered four
types of agents: Basic agent, Coordination agent, Global Coordination agent and
Interface agents. Each one of these agents performs a different task and has its
own subcategories.

 

 

 

Software Engineering Approach 6

 

The programming
language with its special components will improve the programming standard for
the CADS code. CADS developers can enjoy the benefits of a new language
dedicated to the CADS development. Such a language will improve both the
programming speed and the quality of the final code .

 

 

Artificial Intelligence Approach 6

 

Researchers have proposed application of the
fuzzy logic concept into the cyber attack detection problem area. Some
researchers even used a multi disciplinary approach, for example, Gomez et
al., 16 have combined fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm and association rule
techniques in their work. Reports a work where fuzzy logic and Hidden Markov
Model (HMM) have been deployed together to detect cyber attacks.

 

 

Conclusion:

Though not all people are victims to cyber
crimes, they are still at risk. Crimes by computer vary, and they don’t always
occur behind the computer, but they executed by computer. The hacker’s identity
is ranged may between 12 years young to 67years old. The hacker could live
three or four or five continents away from its victim, and they wouldn’t even
know they were being hacked. Crimes done behind the computer are the 21st
century’s problem. With the technology increasing, criminals don’t have to rob
banks, nor do they have to be outside in order to commit any crime. They have
everything they need on their lap. Their weapons aren’t guns anymore; they
attack with mouse cursors and passwords.8

We all should using internet very carefully
for all purposes and make sure to secure of all our connections .